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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the impact of low back pain on people’s lives

Lead author & year Country Sample size % Female Central age (mean/median) Aim Setting
Allegretti, 2010 [32] USA 23 48 45 To explore patient and physician interviews and improve communication Family care centre
Benjaminsson, 2007 [33] Sweden 17 59 36 To explore how patients respond to recurrence of pain Physiotherapy clinic
Borkan, 1995 [34] Israel 66 65 39.5 To explore patients’ perceptions and experiences Family practice, clinic, or home
Bowman, 1991 [35] USA 15 40 ND To investigate the meaning of chronic LBP ND
Bowman, 1994a [36] USA 15 40 ND To describe life with LBP Pain management centres
Bowman, 1994b [37] USA 15 40 ND To examine the reaction of individuals to chronic LBP ND
Busch, 2005 [38] Sweden 22 68 41 To examine the development of pain related appraisals, coping and well behaviours, as well as to investigate how these processes affect one another during the course of LBP Private clinic room
Campbell, 2007 [39] UK 16 ND ND To examine expectations for pain treatment and outcome and to determine whether they are influential in maintaining health service consumption ND
Chew, 1997 [40] UK 20 82 ND To explore how sufferers of LBP describe their pain and its impact on their lives ND
Cook, 2000 [41] ND 7 57 42.3 To gain an in-depth understanding of individual patients’ experiences of LBP and active rehabilitation Home, or physiotherapy clinic
Coole, 2010 [31] UK 25 52 44.7 To explore the experiences of employed people with back pain regarding the help they have received from GPs Home, workplace, or local clinic
Coole, 2010 [42] UK 25 52 44.7 To explore the individual experiences and perceptions of patients awaiting rehabilitation who were concerned about their ability to work because of persisting, or recurrent, low back pain Home, workplace, or local clinic
Corbett, 2007 [43] UK 37 59 ND To explore the struggle between hope and despair through consideration of six people’s narratives about their experiences of chronic LBP Home, or research centre
Crowe, 2010 [44] New Zealand 64 48 55.1 To investigate experiences of the impact of LBP ND
Dean, 2010 [47] New Zealand 33 18 47.7 To explore and document the experiences of NZ farm workers who continue to work despite their LBP ‘Place of convenience to the participant’
Hooper, 2005 [49] UK 5 50 ND To provide opportunities to reflect on clinical practice and on the role of informal carers within the provision of health care for the back pain patient ND, although it is clear that a participant with back pain has been interviewed with his wife (also his expert carer)
Holloway, 2007 [48] UK 18 50 53 To explore and conceptualise the experiences of people of working age who seek help from pain clinics for LBP Patients’ homes
Hush, 2009 [12] Australia 36 42 41 To explore patients’ perceptions of recovery from LBP Meeting room at University of Sydney
Hush, 2010 [13] Australia 36 42 41.6 To explore whether NRS/RMDQ capture meaningful changes ND
Keen, 1999 [27] UK 27 37 ND To explore the association influence changes in physical activity and the way individuals perceive and behave with their LBP and the impact of this on physical activity Homes of participants, and office of PI
Layzell, 2001 [50] UK 12 50 ND To explore how back pain affects sufferers’ lives ND
Liddle, 2007 [51] UK 28 78 ND To explore experiences, opinion, and treatment expectations of LBP to identify what treatment components are valued Private room in university
May, 2000 [52] UK 12 50 ND To explore ways persons with long standing chronic LBP respond to medical doubt about the presence of organic pathology ND
Morris, 2004 [53] UK 6 50 ND Patients’ experiences of attending a back rehabilitation programme were examined Participant choice of home, quiet room in hospital, or clinic
Ong, 2003 [28] UK 6 50 ND To describe course of LBP over 12 months ND
Ong, 2004 [54] UK 16 38 ND To explore how people report LBP to clinicians Patients’ homes
Ong, 2006 [29] UK 2 100 ND To explore the role of concordance in therapeutic relationships through directly comparing patients’ and clinicians’ accounts of the diagnosis and impact of LBP Patients’ homes
Osborn, 1998 [55] UK 9 100 ND To explore the sufferer’s personal experiences of their pain ND
Osborn, 2006 [56] UK 6 40 44 To explore and articulate the meanings and themes that make up the personal experience of the body when in pain ND
Reid, 2004 [57] UK 50 54 ND To explore the perceived health needs of chronic LBP patients Homes and clinics
Skelton, 1996 [58] UK 52 50 41 To elicit the views of patients concerning LBP and its management in general practice ND
Slade, 2009 [61] Australia 18 50 51.2 To determine participant-experience of exercise programmes for non-specific LBP ND
Slade, 2009 [59] Australia 18 50 51 To determine what factors are important for patients to engage in exercise programmes ND
Slade, 2009 [60] Australia 18 50 51 To investigate and summarise participant experience of exercise programmes for non-specific LBP and the effects of these experiences on exercise participation and engagement ND
Sloots, 2010 [62] Netherlands 23 52 40 To explore which factors led to drop-out in patients of Turkish and Moroccan origin with chronic nonspecific LBP who participated in a rehabilitation programme Participant choice of home or clinic
Smith, 2007 [63] UK 6 33 44 To explore how chronic benign low back pain may have a serious debilitating impact on the sufferer’s sense of self ND
Snelgrove, 2009 [64] UK 10 70 ND To understand the meaning of LBP for participants with longstanding history of chronic pain Patients’ homes
de Souza, 2007 [45] UK 11 55 49.3 To explore and describe the physical consequences of living day-to-day with LBP and to document insider accounts of how the pain impacts daily activities Participants’ homes
de Souza, 2011 [46] UK 11 55 49.3 To explore interactions and relationships within the family and the workplace from the perspective of the person with chronic spinal pain Participants’ homes
Sokunbi, 2010 [65] UK 9 67 46.6 To explore the experiences of a sample of individuals with chronic LBP who participated in an RCT of exercises Private room in university
Strong, 1995 [67] New Zealand 19 58 53.7 To explore coping strategies ND
Strong, 1994 [66] Australia 8 50 54.4 To explore relevant dimensions of pain Private room in Brisbane Royal Hospital
Tarasuk, 1995 [30] Canada 15 33 ND To learn about individuals’ experiences and perspectives of longer term ramifications of LBP ND
Tavafian, 2008 [68] Iran 24 100 42.9 To explore Iranian womens’ beliefs about causation ND
Tveito, 2010 [69] USA 15 33 ND To address legitimacy concerns in the workplace, particularly those relating to workers’ perceptions of reactions of employers, supervisors, and co-workers Quiet office
Young, 2011 [73] Canada 31 45 ND To determine the meaning participants associated with the term ‘recurrence’ Public library in Vancouver
Wade, 2003 [70] South Africa 3 100 ND To provide a description of the life-world of people with chronic low back pain ND
Walker, 1999 [71] UK 20 40 ND ND Participants’ homes
Walker, 2006 [72] UK 20 40 ND To provide a more detailed understanding of the lived experience of chronic back pain prior to seeking help from pain clinics Participants’ homes
  1. ND = No datum(a).