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Table 1 Characteristic of Saudi women screened for low bone mineral density using quantitative ultrasound technique in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

From: Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

Characteristic Women screened as positive for low BMD using QUS (n%) Women screened as negative for low BMD using QUS (n%) P value
Age (in years)n = 1005    
41 to 50 166 (31.1) 212 (45) <0.01
51 to 60 228 (42.7) 185 (39.3)
61 to 70 103 (19.3) 55 (11.7)
70 and above   
Marital Status n = 995    
Single* 50 (9.5) 41 (8.8) <0.01
Married 308 (58.2) 327 (70.2)  
Widow 171 (32.3) 98 (21)
Education n = 1008    
University and above 25 (4.7) 31 (6.6) <0.01
Intermediate& secondary 30 (5.6) 48 (10.1)  
Primary 24 (4.5) 41 (8.7)  
Illiterate 456 (85.2) 353 (74.6)
Occupation n = 962    
Doctor 1 (0.2) 5 (1.1) 0.08
Teacher/Administrator 45 (8.8) 51 (11.4)  
Housewife 467 (91) 393 (87.5)  
Husband Occupation n = 748    
Doctors/teachers 32 (8.5) 26 (7) 0.36
Business man 98 (26) 104 (28)  
Military 107 (28.4) 88 (23.7)
Administration 140 (37.1) 153 (41.2)
Type of House n = 965    
Villa 390 (76.2) 342 (75.5) 0.95
Apartment 74 (14.5) 66 (14.6)  
Small house 48 (9.4) 45 (9.9)
Body Mass Index n = 981    
Normal 60 (11.5) 30 (6.6) <0.01
Overweight 149 (28.5) 113 (24.7)  
Obese 314 (60) 315 (68.8)
Exposure to sunlight per week n = 966    
All the time 130 (25.4) 104 (22.9) 0.29
Twice-thrice per week 119 (23.2) 97 (21.4)  
Occasionally 208 (40.6) 212 (46.7)
Not at all 55 (10.7) 41 (9)  
Duration of exposure n = 785    
Sixty minutes 7 (1.6) 4 (1.1) 0.13
Half an hour 103 (24.1) 66 (18.5)  
Fifteen minutes 318 (74.3) 287 (80.4)
Obstetric history
Age at menarche n = 978    
≤ than 11 years 141 (27.3) 119 (25.8) 0.82
12 to 14 years 303 (58.7) 274 (59.3)  
≥15 years 72 (14) 69 (14.9)  
Menstrual status n = 920    
Regular 170 (36) 178 (39.7) 0.23
Peri-menopausal** 168 (35.6) 136 (30.4)  
Menopause 134 (28.4) 134 (29.9)  
Number of pregnancies n = 963    
No pregnancy 10 (2) 20 (4.4) 0.08
Pregnant 1–4 times 66 (12.9) 62 (13.7)  
Pregnant >5 times 436 (85.2) 369 (81.8)  
History of breast feeding n = 956    
Not at all*** 16 (3.1) 20 (4.5) <0.01
For <6 months 119 (23.4) 140 (31.3)  
For >6 months 374 (73.5) 287 (64.2)  
Use of Contraceptive pills    
n = 947    
Yes 272 (54) 208(47) 0.03
No 232 (46) 235(53)  
Duration of contraceptive pill use n = 504    
Less than 5 years 144 (57.8) 175 (68.6) <0.01
5 to 10 years 78 (31.3) 47 (18.4)  
More than 10 years 27 (10.8) 33 (12.9)  
Past medical history
Diabetic on insulin n = 1008    
No 337 (63) 283 (59.8) 0.30
Yes 198 (37) 190 (40.2)  
Past history of fractures on trivial fall n = 954    
No 442 (86.8) 398 (89.4) 0.13
Yes 67 (13.2) 47 (10.6)  
Family History
History of Osteoporosis in the family n = 870    
No 457 (98.3) 389 (96) 0.04
Yes 8 (1.7) 16 (4)  
Family history of fracture on trivial fall n = 846    
No 449 (98.5) 379 (97.2) 0.19
Yes 7 (1.5) 11 (2.8)  
Physical Activity
Walking n = 1008    
Yes 274 (51.2) 258 (54.5) 0.29
No 261 (48.8) 215 (45.5)  
Climbing Stairs n = 1008    
Yes 28 (5.2) 25 (5.3) 0.97
No 507 (94.8) 448 (94.7)  
Swimming n = 1008    
Yes 11 (2.1) 6 (1.3) 0.33
No 524 (97.9) 467 (98.7)  
Dietary Habits
Milk (200 ml) n = 1008    
Yes 420 (78.5) 397 (83.9) 0.03
No 115 (21.5) 76 (16.1)  
Laban (200 ml) n = 1008    
Yes 451 (84.3) 410 (86.7) 0.28
No 84 (15.7) 63 (13.3)  
Cheese (slice = 100gms) n = 1008    
Yes 421 (78.7) 399 (84.4) 0.02
No 114 (21.3) 74 (15.6)  
Fish slice(any type) n = 1008    
Yes 330 (61.7) 323 (68.3) 0.03
No 205 (38.3) 150 (31.7)  
Meat n = 1008    
Yes 493 (92.1) 443 (93.7) 0.35
No 42 (7.9) 30 (6.3)  
Green Tea (100 ml)n = 1008    
Yes 488 (91.2) 431 (91.1) 0.95
No 47 (8.8) 42 (8.9)  
Arabic coffee (100 ml)n = 1008    
Yes 447 (83.6) 414 (87.5) 0.07
No 88 (16.4) 59 (12.5)  
Beverages (250 ml)n = 1008    
Yes 97 (18.1) 127 (26.8) <0.01
No 438 (81.9) 346 (73.2)  
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