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Table 4 Intra-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests of the spine (continuous variables)

From: Screening of the spine in adolescents: inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests

Examination (missing values)   Measurement error Reliability
  Rater Range (cm) đ (cm) LoA (cm) SEoM ICC [2, 1] (95% CI)
General mobility       
  Lateral flexion FFD R (1) 1 29.5, 58.0 1.53 -7.5, 10.5 3.3 0.77 (0.60, 0.88)
  R 2 36.0, 51.5 1.00 -5.7, 7.7 2.4 0.65 (0.41, 0.80)
  L 1 34.0, 57.0 0.56 -6.2, 7.3 2.4 0.84 (0.72, 0.91)
  L 2 34.5, 52.0 0.33 -6.7, 7.3 2.4 0.64 (0.40, 0.80)
  Forward flexion FFD (1) 1 0, 34.5 -0.77 -10.3, 8.7 3.4 0.89 (0.80, 0.94)
  (3) 2 0, 31.5 -0.06 -6.7, 6.6 2.3 0.94 (0.89, 0.97)
  Schober test 1* 13.3, 15.5 0.03 -1.3, 1.3 0.4 0.53 (0.26, 0.73)
  2* 13.0, 16.0 -0.03 -2.9, 2.8 1.0 0.14 (-0.21, 0.45)
  1. Range = lowest and highest measured value; đ = mean difference between ratings (systematic error); LoA = Limits of Agreement; SEoM = standard error of measurement; CI = confidence interval; FFD = finger-floor-distance; R = right; L = left; ICC = interclass correlation coefficient. * In the Schober test rater 1 rounded up/down to nearest half cm, rater 2 by fault to nearest whole cm. Clinically acceptable ICC in bold.