Gene expression levels of pro-angiogenic factors. Relative expression of VEGF-A mRNA to S18 ribosomal RNA (A), VEGF-R2 mRNA to S18 ribosomal RNA (B), and TGF-β1 mRNA to S18 ribosomal RNA (C) in soleus muscles. Gene expression levels of VEGF-A (A) significantly decreased in HS, HS + WB, and HS + VIB groups compared with the CONT group. VEGF-R2 mRNA expression (B) in HS group tended to decrease compared with the CONT group, but did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant differences in gene expression levels of TGF-β1 among the groups. Values are mean ± SD. *indicates significant differences (P < 0.05).