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Table 4 Sole characteristics and risk of OA from the additional questionnaire

From: Self-reported adult footwear and the risks of lower limb osteoarthritis: the GOAL case control study

A
Female Sole Groups Knee OA Hip OA
Control Knee OA Hip OA Univariate Adjusted Univariate Adjusted
20-29 yrs Thin (ref) 142 99 106 1.62 (0.94 - 2.78) 1.29 (0.70 - 2.40) 1.17 (0.66 - 2.07) 1.12 (0.59 - 2.11)
Thick 31 35 27
Soft (ref) 30 37 23 0.62 (0.35 - 1.09) 0.55 (0.30 - 1.02) 1.05 (0.56 - 1.94) 1.12 (0.57 - 2.20)
Hard 101 77 81
20-39 yrs Thin (ref) 121 79 92 2.23 (1.21 - 4.11)* 1.98 (1.00 - 3.91) 1.14 (0.58 - 2.22) 1.01 (0.48 - 2.12)
Thick 22 32 19
Soft (ref) 26 30 21 0.76 (0.41 - 1.43) 0.66 (0.33 - 1.30) 1.15 (0.59 - 2.24) 1.09 (0.52 - 2.28)
Hard 67 59 62
B
Male Sole Groups Knee OA Hip OA
Control Knee OA Hip OA Univariate Adjusted Univariate Adjusted
20-29 yrs Thin (ref) 62 36 55 1.34 (0.84 - 2.15) 1.13 (0.67 - 1.92) 0.74 (0.48 - 1.15) 0.69 (0.44 - 1.10)
Thick 163 127 107
Soft (ref) 39 18 24 1.51 (0.83 - 2.75) 1.82 (0.94 - 3.52) 1.16 (0.67 - 2.02) 1.06 (0.60 - 1.89)
Hard 194 135 139
20-39 yrs Thin (ref) 52 32 51 1.29 (0.78 - 2.14) 1.11 (0.63 - 1.95) 0.69 (0.43 - 1.09) 0.65 (0.40 - 1.06)
Thick 147 117 99
Soft (ref) 33 17 20 1.39 (0.74 - 2.61) 1.65 (0.82 - 3.32) 1.21 (0.66 - 2.21) 1.03 (0.55 - 1.93)
Hard 169 121 124
  1. Persistent female and male users of certain types of shoe sole in their 20’s and through early adulthood are presented for female (A) and male (B) participants in the GOAL study. OR (95% CI) and aOR (adjusted for age, BMI in 20’s, occupational risk and previous injury to index joint) are shown. Persistent users were defined as >50% user in every decade, and variable users were not assessed. *-p < 0.05. Reference (ref) groups indicated within table.Statistical significance is highlighted in bold.