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Table 7 Osteopathic manipulative treatment in comparison to usual obstetric care, sham ultrasound and untreated for nonspecific low back pain in pregnant women

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessment No. of patients Treatment effect (95% CI) Quality of the evidence
No. of studies Design Limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations OMT Usual obstetric care, sham ultrasound and untreated
Pain (measured with: Pain VAS from 0 to 100 [worse pain]; Better indicated by lower values)
3 randomised trials no serious limitations serious1 no serious indirectness serious2 none 99 143 MD 23.01 lower (44.13 to 1.88 lower)  ΟΟ LOW
Functional status (measured with: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; Better indicated by lower values)
3 randomised trials no serious limitations serious3 no serious indirectness serious2 none 99 143 SMD 0.80 lower (1.36 to 0.23 lower)  ΟΟ LOW
  1. 1I2 = 91%.
  2. 2Sample size < 400.
  3. 3I2 = 76%.
  4. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, MD Mean difference, OMT Osteopathic manipulative treatment, SMD Standard mean difference, VAS Visual analogue scale.