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Table 6 Osteopathic manipulative treatment in comparison to other interventions for chronic nonspecific low back pain

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessment No. of patients Treatment effect (95% CI) Quality of the evidence
No. of studies Design Limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations OMT All other interventions and sham treatment
Pain (measured with: Pain VAS from 0 to 100 [worse pain]; Better indicated by lower values)
6 randomised trials no serious limitations serious1 no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 387 382 MD 14.93 lower (25.18 to 4.68 lower) Ο MODERATE
Functional status (follow-up 3 months; measured with: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index; Better indicated by lower values)
6 randomised trials no serious limitations no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 388 383 SMD 0.32 lower (0.58 to 0.07 lower)  HIGH
  1. 1I2 = 89%.
  2. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, MD Mean difference, OMT Osteopathic manipulative treatment, SMD Standard mean difference, VAS Visual analogue scale.