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Table 5 Osteopathic manipulative treatment in comparison to other interventions for acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessment No. of patients Treatment effect (95% CI) Quality of the evidence
No. of studies Design Limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations OMT All other interventions and sham treatment
Pain (follow-up 3 months; measured with: Pain VAS from 0 to 100 [worse pain]; Better indicated by lower values)
10 randomised trials no serious limitations serious1 no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 566 575 MD 12.91 lower (20 to 5.82 lower) Ο MODERATE
Functional status (follow-up 3 months; measured with: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index; Better indicated by lower values)
9 randomised trials no serious limitations serious1 no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 529 517 SMD 0.36 lower (0.58 to 0.14 lower) Ο MODERATE
  1. 1I2 = 86%.
  2. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, MD Mean difference, OMT Osteopathic manipulative treatment, SMD Standard mean difference, VAS Visual analogue scale.