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Table 2 Overview of treatment and comparison interventions in included studies

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Included study Intervention Comparison Type of pain Outcome measure interval1
Adorjàn-Schaumann 1999 OMT Sham MT Chronic 75 days
Andersson 1999 OMT UC Acute + Chronic 12 weeks
Chown 20083 OMT Physiotherapy Chronic 6 weeks
Cruser 2012 OMT UC Acute 4 weeks
Gibson 1985 OMT Sham SWD Acute + Chronic4 2, 4, 12 weeks
Gibson 1985a2 OMT SWD Acute + Chronic4 2, 4, 12 weeks
Gundermann 2013 OMT Untreated NS, Pregnancy 6 weeks
Heinze 2006 OMT + PT + Heat PT + Heat Acute + Chronic 12 weeks
Licciardone 2003 OMT Untreated Chronic 30, 90, 180 days
Licciardone 2003a2 OMT Sham MT Chronic 30, 90, 180 days
Licciardone 2009 OMT + UOBC UOBC NS, Pregnancy 9 weeks
Licciardone 20092 OMT + UOBC UOBC + SUT NS, Pregnancy 9 weeks
Licciardone 2013 OMT Sham OMT Chronic 12 weeks
Mandara 2008 OMT Sham MT Chronic 6 weeks
Peters 2006 OMT Untreated NS, Pregnancy 5 weeks
Recknagel 2007 OMT Untreated Chronic, PP 8 weeks
Schwerla 2012 OMT Untreated Chronic, PP 8 weeks
Vismara 2012 OMT + SE SE Chronic 2 weeks
  1. 1Bolded time interval included in the analysis of the current review.
  2. 2Second comparison in this published study.
  3. 3The second comparison in this study (group exercise) was not considered because of a dropout rate of 60%.
  4. 4Low back pain period from 2 weeks to 30 weeks.
  5. Abbreviations: MT Manipulative treatment, NS Not specified, OMT Osteopathic manipulative treatment, PP Postpartum, PT Physical therapy, SE Specific exercises, SUT Sham ultrasound treatment, SWD Short-wave diathermy, UC Usual care, UOBC Usual obstetric care.