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Table 3 Secondary outcome measures; number of participants contributed to the analysis (first row), mean change from baseline and difference between treatments with 95% confidence interval

From: Primum non nocere: shared informed decision making in low back pain – a pilot cluster randomised trial

Mean change from baseline Mean treatment difference*
Decision support package Usual care
Roland Morris disability questionnaire (positive change = improvement)
n = 58 n = 40  
1.9 (0.5 to 3.3) 4.2 (2.5 to 5.9) -2.27 (-4.47 to -0.08)
Modified Von Korff disability score (positive change = improvement)
n = 64 n = 49  
17.1 (10.9 to 23.3) 18.2 (11.0 to 25.3) -1.07 (-10.50 to 8.37)
Modified Von Korff pain score (positive change = improvement)
n = 66 n = 50  
14.7 (7.6 to 21.9) 24.0 (16.6 to 31.4) -9.24 (-19.44 to 0.96)
Norm-based physical component score of SF-12 (negative change = improvement)
n = 53 n = 35  
-5.5 (-7.7 to -3.3) -6.3 (-9.1 to -3.6) 0.80 (-2.71 to 4.32)
Norm-based mental component score of SF-12 (negative change = improvement)
n = 53 n = 35  
-3.4 (-6.4 to -0.4) -1.8 (-5.5 to 1.9) -1.64 (-6.36 to 3.09)
Hospital anxiety and depression scale: anxiety (positive change = improvement)
n = 57 n = 36  
0.5 (-0.5 to 1.5) 1.0 (-0.2 to 2.2) -0.46 (-2.01 to 1.09)
Hospital anxiety and depression scale: depression (positive change = improvement)
n = 55 n = 36  
1.1 (0.2 to 2.0) 2.2 (1.1 to 3.3) -1.12 (-2.52 to 0.28)
Pain self-efficacy questionnaire (negative change = improvement)
n = 57 n = 38  
-4.6 (-9.4 to 0.2) -7.3 (-12.2 to -2.5) 2.74 (-4.04 to 9.51)
Fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (positive change = improvement)
n = 56 n = 36  
2.0 (0.2 to 3.9) 2.1 (-0.2 to 4.4) -0.09 (-3.04 to 2.87)
  1. *Mean difference = (decision support package – usual care) after adjusting for years of experience and pain severity at baseline as fixed effects and physiotherapist as random effects; negative difference = favours usual care.