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Table 2 Associations* between cortisol measures and the presence of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain (n = 1125)

From: Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: partly masked by depressive and anxiety disorders

  OR (95% CI) P
At awakening
Sociodemographica 0.86 (0.75, 0.98) 0.03
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.83 (0.72, 0.95) 0.009
Depression and anxietyc 0.81 (0.70, 0.94) 0.006
AUCg
Sociodemographica 0.94 (0.83, 1.08) 0.40
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.91 (0.79, 1.06) 0.23
Depression and anxietyc 0.89 (0.76, 1.04) 0.13
AUCi
Sociodemographica 1.10 (0.97, 1.26) 0.15
Lifestyle & diseaseb 1.12 (0.97, 1.30) 0.12
Depression and anxietyc 1.10 (0.94, 1.28) 0.25
Mean evening level
Sociodemographica 0.92 (0.80, 1.05) 0.21
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.85 (0.72, 0.99) 0.04
Depression and anxietyc 0.85 (0.72, 1.00) 0.05
Diurnal slope
Sociodemographica 0.89 (0.77, 1.02) 0.10
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.88 (0.76, 1.02) 0.10
Depression and anxietyc 0.85 (0.73, 0.99) 0.04
Cortisol suppression ratio
Sociodemographica 1.02 (0.89, 1.16) 0.80
Lifestyle & diseaseb 1.03 (0.90, 1.18) 0.69
Depression and anxietyc 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 0.57
  1. *Based on adjusted logistic regression analyses; OR per 1 SD increase;
  2. At awakening: SD = 6.78, AUCg: SD = 6.87, AUCi: SD = 6.39, mean evening level: SD = 3.43, diurnal slope: SD = 0.45, cortisol suppression ratio: SD = 1.58.
  3. aAdjusted for awakening time, working on day of sampling, month of sampling, ≤6 hours of sleep, age, sex, and years of education.
  4. bAdditionally adjusted for body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and chronic diseases; cadditionally adjusted for lifetime depressive/anxiety disorder and antidepressants.