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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants*

From: Frailty index of deficit accumulation and falls: data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort

Characteristics Overall participants (n = 3,985) Women without falls (n = 2471) Women with one fall (n = 853) Women with ≥2 falls (n = 630) P-value
Age: mean (SDa), years 69.4 (8.89) 69.4 (8.58) 69.6 (9.14) 69.4 (9.74) 0.748c
Age strata, n (%)
  55-64 1,385 (34.76) 839 (33.95) 292 (34.23) 248 (39.37) 0.404d
  65-74 1,423 (35.71) 939 (38.00) 285 (33.41) 187 (29.68)
  75-84 952 (23.89) 578 (23.39) 219 (25.67) 142 (22.54)
  ≥85 225 (5.65) 115 (4.65) 57 (6.68) 53 (8.41)
BMIb: mean (SD), kg/m2 27.7 (5.77) 27.5 (5.54) 27.7 (5.90) 28.5 (6.40) 0.002c
Smoker, n (%)
  Yes 447 (11.3) 269 (10.96) 97 (11.44) 77 (12.32) 0.623e
  No 3,510 (88.70) 2185 (89.04) 751 (88.56) 548 (87.68)
Drinking (drinks/week), n (%)
  0 2,027 (51.21) 1239 (50.49) 411 (48.52) 360 (57.51) 0.057d
  <7 1,414 (35.73) 886 (36.10) 324 (38.25) 193 (30.83)
  7-13 428 (10.81) 276 (11.25) 94 (11.10) 56 (8.95)
  ≥14 89 (2.25) 53 (2.16) 18 (2.13) 17 (2.72)
Race, n (%)
  White 3,717 (93.27) 2299 (93.04) 798 (93.55) 597 (94.76) 0.293e
  Non-white 268 (6.73) 172 (6.96) 55 (6.45) 33 (5.24)
Education, n (%)
  High school or less 2,509 (64.10) 1608 (66.23) 518 (61.74) 360 (58.16) <0.001e
  More than high school 1,405 (35.90) 820 (33.77) 321 (38.26) 259 (41.84)
Family history of fractures, n (%)
  Yes 898 (23.81) 514 (21.82) 204 (25.40) 172 (29.30) <0.001e
  No 2,874 (76.19) 1842 (78.18) 599 (74.60) 415 (70.70)
Overnight hospitalization in last 12 months, n (%)
  0 3,498 (88.65) 2213 (90.25) 747 (88.30) 516 (82.96) <0.001d
  1 337 (8.54) 187 (7.63) 78 (9.22) 69 (11.09)
  ≥2 111 (2.81) 52 (2.12) 21 (2.48) 37 (5.95)
Prior fractures since 45 years old, n (%)
  Yes 862 (22.31) 447 (18.65) 217 (26.08) 193 (31.64) <0.001e
  No 3,001 (77.69) 1950 (81.35) 615 (73.92) 417 (68.36)
Frailty index: mean (SD) 0.24 (0.13) 0.22 (0.12) 0.25 (0.13) 0.31 (0.15) <0.001c
  1. *Mean follow-up = 3.01 years.
  2. aSD: standard deviation; bBMI: body mass index; cOne-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test; dMantel-Haenszel Chi-square test; eChi-square test.