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Table 4 Multivariable linear regression for dependent variables of baseline RMDQ and back pain NRS on patient characteristics

From: Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data

Independent variable Levels Dependent variable: RMDQ (0–24) Dependent variable: back pain intensity (0–10)
   Coef* (95% CI) P-value Coef* (95% CI) P-value
Site Boston Ref <0.001 Ref <0.001
  Detroit 5.22 (4.56, 5.88) 1.26 (0.96, 1.56)
  N. CA 3.30 (2.77, 3.82) 0.59 (0.35, 0.83)
Age (Per year) 0.03 (0.00, 0.05) 0.048 0.00 (-0.01, 0.01) 0.983
Sex Male Ref <0.001 Ref <0.001
  Female 1.10 (0.73, 1.46) 0.50 (0.34, 0.67)
Hispanic Yes Ref 0.578 Ref 0.087
  No -0.24 (-1.10, 0.62) -0.34 (-0.73, 0.05)
Race Black or African American Ref 0.011 Ref <0.001
  Native American Indian/Alaskan/Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander -0.13 (-1.93, 1.67) -0.05 (-0.88, 0.77)
  Asian -0.29 (-1.25, 0.68) -0.50 (-0.94, -0.06)
  Caucasian -0.76 (-1.27, -0.25) -0.72 (-0.96, -0.49)
  Other 0.16 (-0.79, 1.10) -0.51 (-0.94, -0.07)
Education Less than high school graduate Ref <0.001 Ref <0.001
  High school graduate/obtained a GED/Vocational, technical, or trade school -1.13 (-1.87, -0.39) -0.35 (-0.69, -0.02)
  Some college -2.20 (-2.96, -1.44) -0.40 (-0.75, -0.06)
  Four year college graduate -2.99 (-3.78, -2.20) -0.80 (-1.16, -0.44)
  Professional or graduate degree -3.04 (-3.85, -2.23) -1.05 (-1.42, -0.68)
Marital Married/living with a partner Ref 0.386 Ref 0.086
  Separated/divorced 0.20 (-0.34, 0.73) 0.07 (-0.17, 0.32)
  Never married and presently single 0.45 (-0.31, 1.21) 0.25 (-0.10, 0.60)
  Widowed 0.33 (-0.12, 0.78) 0.25 (0.04, 0.45)
Employment Working full-time/part-time Ref <0.001 Ref 0.003
  Retired (not due to ill health) 0.86 (0.33, 1.38) 0.30 (0.06, 0.54)
  Retired or disabled because of ill health 3.90 (2.82, 4.99) 0.87 (0.38, 1.37)
  Other 0.60 (-0.33, 1.54) 0.08 (-0.34, 0.51)
Legal rep. Yes Ref 0.059 Ref 0.115
  No -2.00 (-4.07, 0.08) -0.76 (-1.71, 0.19)
Smoking status Never Smoked Ref <0.001 Ref 0.012
  Quit smoking over a year ago 0.39 (0.04, 0.74) 0.13 (-0.03, 0.29)
  Current smoker/quit less than a year ago 1.46 (0.77, 2.15) 0.45 (0.14, 0.77)
ICD9 code Non-specific Ref <0.001 Ref 0.051
  Back and Leg 1.00 (0.59, 1.42) -0.04 (-0.23, 0.15)
  Spinal Stenosis 1.08 (0.35, 1.81) -0.46 (-0.79, -0.13)
  Others -0.75 (-1.46, -0.05) -0.14 (-0.47, 0.18)
Pain duration 0 - 1 month Ref <0.001 Ref <0.001
  1 - 3 month 0.62 (0.16, 1.08) 0.13 (-0.08, 0.34)
  3 - 6 month 0.61 (-0.07, 1.30) 0.33 (0.02, 0.65)
  6 - 12 month 1.07 (0.35, 1.78) 0.42 (0.10, 0.75)
  1 - 5 years 1.80 (1.29, 2.31) 0.46 (0.23, 0.69)
  > 5 years 2.03 (1.56, 2.50) 0.53 (0.31, 0.74)
Time from index visit to assessment (per day, 0–21) -0.04 (-0.08, -0.00) 0.029 -0.07 (-0.08, -0.05) <0.001
  1. *Multivariable regression model coefficients are on the scale of the dependent variable and are not standardized.
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