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Table 1 Multivariate regression of change in pain, function, and working capacity at discharge (n = 175)

From: Multidimensional associative factors for improvement in pain, function, and working capacity after rehabilitation of whiplash associated disorder: a prognostic, prospective outcome study

  Bivariate Multivariate
Covariate Correlation Partial correlation Explained variance F change Regression coefficient Coefficient’s significance
Pain relief: SF-36 bodily pain (explained variance: 54.6%)
Constant      -11.974 0.008
SF-36 Bodily pain Baseline -0.477 -0.598 22.8% 49.8 -0.651 <0.001
CSQ Decrease pain Change 0.345 0.281 9.6% 23.8 0.184 <0.001
CSQ Decrease pain Baseline -0.044 0.165 6.2% 16.7 0.131 <0.001
HADS Depression Change 0.278 0.180 3.9% 11.2 0.162 0.001
SF-36 Physical function Change 0.254 0.247 3.4% 11.3 0.203 0.001
HADS Depression Baseline 0.043 0.166 3.4% 10.3 0.119 0.002
SF-36 Physical function Baseline 0.039 0.283 2.0% 6.4 0.245 0.013
SF-36 Social functioning Change 0.316 0.155 1.3% 4.7 0.078 0.032
Smoking    0.135 0.183 1.3% 4.4 4.335 0.038
Sports   Baseline 0.143 0.134 0.8% 2.9 1.358 0.090
Functional improvement: NASS function (explained variance: 53.3%)
Constant        14.587 <0.001
CSQ Catastrophizing Change 0.440 0.261 19.4% 40.6 0.194 <0.001
NASS Function Baseline -0.373 -0.537 11.4% 27.8 -0.482 <0.001
NASS Pain Change 0.378 0.390 11.3% 32.6 0.235 <0.001
NASS Pain Baseline -0.084 0.264 5.9% 18.9 0.177 <0.001
HADS Depression Baseline -0.078 0.215 2.0% 6.7 0.133 0.006
HADS Depression Change 0.440 0.279 1.9% 6.2 0.222 <0.001
Sex    0.181 0.174 1.5% 5.1 4.204 0.026
Working capacity improvement (explained variance: 61.6%)
Constant        15.171 <0.001
Working capacity Baseline -0.753 -0.780 56.7% 221.0 -0.764 <0.001
NASS Function Baseline 0.028 0.210 2.5% 10.1 0.120 0.006
Age    -0.114 -0.180 1.8% 7.7 -0.134 0.020
Comorbidities   -0.109 -0.133 0.7% 3.0 -0.971 0.087
  1. Legend: SF-36: Short Form 36. NASS: North American Spine Society cervical spine self-assessment instrument. CSQ: Coping Strategies Questionnaire. HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Admission: baseline score, Change: Change of the score between baseline and follow-up.