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Table 4 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The reliability of WorkWell Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation: a systematic review

        Inter-rater reliability Intra-rater reliability Test-retest reliability
Authors Population Health status of subjects Effort levels assessed Type of monitoring Expertise of observers Range of included items Weight handling and strength Weight handling and strength Weight handling and strength Posture and mobility Locomotion Balance
Smith [19] n: 21 subjects (126 taped procedures); Age: 40 years (22–61); Sex: 16 M, 5 F; r: 5 raters; Country: USA Low back pain Maximal safe performance Video monitoring Trained Lifting low POA: 81-82%; κ: 0.62-0.64 POA: 87%; κ: 0.73     
Gardener and McKenna [20] n: 30 subjects (144 taped procedures); Age: 31 years (20–30); Sex: 10 M, 20 F; r: 5 raters; Country: Australia Unclear Maximal safe performance Video monitoring Trained Lifting low POA: 86-94%; κ: 0.56-0.82      
Gross and Battie [23] n: 28 subjects; Age: 41 years (23–62); Sex: 20 M, 8 F; r: 5 raters; Country: Canada Low back pain Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Lifting low, lifting high, short carry two-handed, long carry two-handed, long carry left-handed, long carry right-handed ICC: 0.95-0.98   ICC: 0.78-0.94    
Reneman et al. [24] n: 4 subjects (104 taped procedures); Age: 20–30 years; Sex: 2 M, 2 F; r: 5 raters; Country: Netherland Healthy Light, moderate, heavy and maximal safe performance Video monitoring Trained Lifting low, lifting high, short carry two-handed, long carry two-handed, long carry left-handed, long carry right-handed POA: 87-96% POA: 93-97%     
Reneman et al. [25] n: 50 subjects; Age: 38.8 (28–52); Sex: 39 M, 11 F; Country: Netherland Chronic low back pain Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Lifting low, lifting high, short carry two-handed    ICC: 0.77-0.87    
Brouwer et al. [12] n: 30 subjects; Age: 40 years; Sex: 24 M, 6 F; Country: Netherland Chronic low back pain Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Complete WWS protocol except for grip strength and hand coordination    ICC: 0.75-0.87; POA: 100% ICC: 0.36-0.96; POA: 78-100%; κ: 0.51-1.00 ICC: 0.84; POA: 78-85%; κ: 0.25-0.56 POA: 96%
Reneman et al. [26] n: 26 subjects; Age: 34.9 years; Sex: 14 M, 12 F; Country: Netherland Healthy Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Complete WWS protocol except for grip strength and hand coordination    ICC: 0.68-0.98; POA: 100% ICC: 0.54-0.93; POA: 79-100%; κ: 0.57-1.00 ICC: 0.64; POA: 85-100%; κ: 0.69 POA: 100%
Reneman et al. [28] n: 15 subjects (71 taped procedures); Age: 29.5 years (18–53); Sex: 7 M, 8 F; r: 9 raters; Country: Netherland Healthy Light, moderate, heavy and maximal safe performance Video monitoring Trained Lifting low κ: 0.58      
  n: 16 subjects (63 taped procedures); Age: 39.6 years (27–50); Sex: 12 M, 4 F; r: 9 raters; Country:Netherland Chronic low back pain Light, moderate, heavy and maximal safe performance Video monitoring Trained Lifting low κ: 0.50      
Soer et al. [29] n: 33 subjects; Age: 29.2 years; Sex: 14 M, 19 F; Country: Netherland Healthy Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Lifting high, grip strength right, grip strength left, overhead work    ICC: 0.86-0.92 ICC: 0.90   
van Ittersum et al. [30] n: 79 subjects; Age: 56.6 years (45–65); Sex: 15% M, 85% F; Country: Netherland Osteoarthritis (hip and/or knee) Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Lifting low, lifting high, short carry two-handed    ICC: 0.75-0.88    
Trippolini et al. [32] n: 32 subjects; Age: 36.9 years (18–65); Sex: 21 M, 11 F; Country: Switzerland Whiplash-associated disorders Maximal safe performance Direct supervision Trained Lifting low, lifting high, short carry two-handed, long carry left-handed, long carry right-handed, grip strength right, grip strength left, overhead work    ICC: 0.66-0.96 ICC: 0.83   
  1. n, number of subjects; M, male; F, female; r, number of raters (only for studies on inter-rater reliability); ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; POA, percentage of agreement; κ, kappa coefficient.