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Table 3 Evaluation criteria adapted from Downs & Black (1998)

From: Physical activity during life course and bone mass: a systematic review of methods and findings from cohort studies with young adults

Studies Reporting External validity Bias Confounding Power Overall
0–10 0–2 0–7 0–4 0–1 0–24
Bakker et al. (2003) 7 2 5 3 0 17
Barnekow-Bergkvist et al. (2006) 10 1 5 3 0 19
Baxter-Jones et al. (2008) 7 0 5 2 0 14
Cooper et al. (1995) 6 2 4 2 0 14
Delvaux et al. (2001) 7 0 5 2 0 14
Groothausen et al. (1997) 7 0 5 2 0 14
Kemper et al. (2000) 8 2 5 3 0 18
Kemper et al. (2002) 5 2 5 4 0 16
Lloyd et al. (2004) 7 2 5 3 0 17
McGuigan et al. (2002) 10 1 5 3 0 19
Mein et al. (2004) 9 0 5 3 0 17
Neville et al. (2002) 9 2 5 4 0 20
Petit et al. (2004) 9 2 5 3 0 19
Uusi-Rasi et al. (2002) 8 0 5 3 0 16
Uusi-Rasi et al. (2008) 8 0 5 3 0 16
Valimaki et al. (1994) 9 2 5 3 0 19
Van Langendonk et al. (2003) 9 2 5 3 0 19
Wang et al. (2003) 8 2 5 3 0 18
Welten et al. (1994) 8 0 5 3 0 16
Mean (SD) 7.9 (1.3) 1.2 (1.0) 4.9 (0.2) 2.9 (0.6) 0.0 (0.0) 16.6 (3.0)