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Table 3 Bi-variate associations between pain-related disability (PDI) at 12 months and independent variables at baseline

From: The clinical course over the first year of Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD): pain-related disability predicts outcome in a mildly affected sample

  PDI at 12 months follow-up
Independent variable at baseline Pearson’s product–moment correlation r p-value
PDI n = 74 .667 <.001
Pain intensity n = 74 .453 <.001
SES n = 73 -.40 <.001
TSK n = 73 .299 .01
CAT n = 74 .209 .074
IES n = 74 .201 .086
  1. Note: N is based on those participants with completed questionnaires from baseline and 12 months follow up.
  2. PDI = Pain Disability Index (0–70), low scores indicate low disability.
  3. Pain intensity (3 items 0–10), low scores indicate low pain intensity, control (1 item 0–10), low scores indicate low control.
  4. SES = Self-Efficacy Scale (0–200), low scores indicate low efficacy expectations.
  5. TSK = The Tampa Scale of Kinesiphobia (17–68), low scores indicate low fear.
  6. CAT = The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (0–36). High scores indicate higher frequency of catastrophic thinking.
  7. IES = Impact of Event Scale (0–75). High scores indicate severe symptoms.