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Table 2 Analyses of changes over the first year after whip-lash occurrence (Friedman test)

From: The clinical course over the first year of Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD): pain-related disability predicts outcome in a mildly affected sample

Outcome Baseline 3-month follow-up 6-month follow-up 12-month follow-up p-value
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) (Chi2, df)
PDI n = 57 3 (5) 2 (5) 2 (5) 1 (6) <.001 (24.7, 3)
Pain Intensity n = 58 2 (2) 1 (2) 1(2) 1 (2) .31 (3.5, 3)
SES n = 57 188 (21) 190 (27) 192 (23) 191 (27) <.001 (26.4, 3)
TSK n = 55 27 (7) 28 (6) 28 (6) 29 (7) .007 (12.0, 3)
CAT n = 57 4 (10) 3 (9) 4 (10) 2 (7) <.001 (20.8, 3)
IES n = 56 24 (17) 21.5 (16) 21 (15) 22 (15) <.001 (33.5, 3)
  1. Note: N is based on those participants with completed questionnaires from all time points.
  2. PDI = Pain Disability Index (0–70), low scores indicate low disability.
  3. Pain intensity (3 items 0–10), low scores indicate low pain intensity, control (1 item 0–10), low scores indicate low control.
  4. SES = Self-Efficacy Scale (0–200), low scores indicate low efficacy expectations.
  5. TSK = The Tampa Scale of Kinesiphobia (17–68), low scores indicate low fear.
  6. CAT = The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (0–36). High scores indicate higher frequency of catastrophic thinking.
  7. IES = Impact of Event Scale (0–75). High scores indicate severe symptoms.