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Table 1 Material properties used in the FE model

From: Biomechanical comparison of three stand-alone lumbar cages — a three-dimensional finite element analysis

Material Element Type Young’s Modulus (MPa) Area (mm 2) Reference
Poisson’s Ratio
Bone   Ex = 11300 v xy = 0.484   [22]
Cortical 8-node SOLID185 Ey = 11300 v xz = 0.203  
Ez = 22000 v yz = 0.203
Gx = 3800  
Gy = 5400
Gz = 5400
Cancellous 8-node SOLID185 Ex = 140 v xy = 0.45   [22]
Ey = 140 v xz = 0.315
Ez = 200 v yz = 0.315
Gx = 48.3  
Gy = 48.3
Gz = 48.3
Posterior bone 8-node SOLID185 3500 0.25 - [22]
Disc      [22]
Nucleus pulposus 8-node FLUID80 1666.7 - - [22]
Ground Substance 8-node SOLID185 C10 = 0.42 - -
C01 = 0.105
Annulus fibers 2-node LINK10     [23]
  Outermost   550 - 0.76  
  Second   495 - 0.5923  
  Third   412.5 - 0.4712  
  Innermost   357.5 - 0.3572  
Cartilaginous Endplates 8-node SOLID185 24 0.4 - [22]
Ligaments 2-node LINK10     [25]
ALL   7.8 - 24
PLL   10 - 14.4  
TL   10 - 3.6  
LF   15 - 40  
ISL   10 - 26  
SSL   8 - 23  
CL   7.5 - 30  
Latero (PEEK) 8-node SOLID185 6500 0.2   
Latero-plate (Titanium alloy) 8-node SOLID185 110000 0.3   
SynFix-LR (PEEK) 8-node SOLID185 6500 0.2   
Locking screw (Titanium alloy) 8-node SOLID185 110000 0.3   
Stabilis (Titanium alloy) 8-node SOLID185 110000 0.3   
SynCage-Open (Titanium alloy) 8-node SOLID185 110000 0.3 -  
Pedicle screw (Titanium alloy) 8-node SOLID185 110000 0.3   
  1. ALL anterior longitudinal ligament; PLL posterior longitudinal ligament; TL transverse ligament; LF ligamentum flavum; ISL interspinous ligament; SSL supraspinous ligament; CL capsular ligament.