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Table 2 Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of background factors, occupational groups, psychosocial working conditions and job strain for being granted DP due to MSD during the follow-up

From: Register-based data of psychosocial working conditions and occupational groups as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses: a prospective cohort study of 24 543 Swedish twins

    Age- and sex-adjusted1      Discordant twin pairs2   
     MZ (n = 427 pairs)     DZ (n = 745 pairs)  
  HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Sex (being a woman) 1.73 1.57, 1.91 - - - -
Marital status (unmarried) 1.15 1.05, 1.27 1.01 0.83, 1.24 1.07 0.91, 1.25
Children living at home (no) 1.32 1.19, 1.45 0.97 0.79, 1.21 1.41 1.20, 1.67
Education (number of years) 0.82 0.80, 0.84 0.94 0.88, 1.01 0.84 0.81, 0.88
Type of living area (semi-rural/rural) 1.34 1.21, 1.47 1.00 0.75, 1.33 1.41 1.12, 1.76
Occupational groups defined by sector       
Administration& management 1.00 referent 1.00 referent 1.00 referent
Technology, science, social science& art 0.95 0.76, 1.18 1.27 0.76, 2.13 1.33 0.93, 1.88
Health care& social work 2.06 1.72, 2.46 1.61 1.05, 2.48 1.94 1.44, 2.66
Commercial work 1.54 1.21, 1.95 1.03 0.62, 1.72 1.46 1.01, 2.10
Agriculture, forestry& fishing 2.33 1.74, 3.14 2.01 0.94, 4.30 2.37 1.41, 3.98
Transport 2.88 2.27, 3.66 2.68 1.35, 5.33 3.16 2.04, 4.89
Production& mining 3.51 2.92, 4.21 1.88 1.15, 3.08 2.83 2.03, 3.94
Service& military work 2.90 2.40, 3.51 1.48 0.91, 2.43 2.71 1.94, 3.78
Psychosocial working conditions       
Job demands (range 1–10, high score is low) 1.63 1.54, 1.73 1.17 1.00, 1.37 1.35 1.20, 1.53
Job control (range 1–10, high score is high) 0.76 0.73, 0.78 0.80 0.72, 0.89 0.79 0.74, 0.85
Social support (range 1–10, high score is high) 1.17 1.05, 1.30 0.90 0.75, 1.09 0.94 0.81, 1.10
Job strain       
High strain 0.75 0.59, 0.96 1.87 1.07, 3.29 0.81 0.55, 1.21
Low strain 1.00 referent 1.00 referent 1.00 referent
Active 0.60 0.51, 0.71 1.06 0.76, 1.50 0.79 0.60, 1.03
Passive 1.54 1.33, 1.80 1.41 1.03, 1.94 1.35 1.04, 1.75
Iso-strain 1.15 0.93, 1.41 2.84 1.58, 5.11 1.43 1.00, 2.03
  1. Notes: 1 Clustered on pair identity, 2MZ=monozygotic, DZ=dizygotic.