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Table 1 Measurement of pain-on-movement and pain-at-rest

From: Efficacy and safety of diclofenac diethylamine 1.16% gel in acute neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Pain-on-movement M. trapezius (upper part):
Position: the subject sat on a chair and the investigator stood behind him/her and fixed his/her shoulders. The investigator determined which shoulder the subject pulled his/her head towards.
Test: The subject pulled her/his head sideways towards the left or the right shoulder as appropriate without lifting up the shoulder at the same time.
M. erector spinae (upper part):
Position: The subject sat on a chair and the investigator stood behind him/her and fixed his/her shoulders with his hands. The subject’s back leaned against the back of the chair.
Test: The subject tried to place his/her chin onto the chest without lifting up the shoulders at the same time and without losing contact with the back of the chair.
M. levator scapulae
Position: The subject sat on a chair with hanging arms and the investigator stood behind and fixed his/her shoulders with his hands.
Test: The subject tried to lift the arms over the side upwards against the gentle resistance of the investigators hands.
After each test:
The extent of pain was evaluated in answer to the question:
“How would you describe your neck pain during movement?”
The subject drew a perpendicular line on the 100-mm VAS scale with anchors at 0 = “No pain at all” and 100 = “Extreme pain” to reflect the pain intensity during movement.
The results were documented directly in the CRF.
Pain-on-movement was defined as the average of the three VAS scores measured with the three muscle tests.
Pain-at-rest The subject stood in an upright position for one minute, relatively motionless.
The extent of pain is evaluated in answer to the question:
“How would you describe your neck pain right now?”
The subject drew a perpendicular line on the 100-mm VAS scale with anchors at 0 = “No pain at all” and 100 = “Extreme pain” to reflect the pain intensity at rest.
  The results were documented directly in the CRF.
  1. CRF = case report form.