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Table 1 Summary of previous studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for acromioclavicular joint pain and pathology

From: Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain

Test Author and Year Recruitment Sensitivity Specificity LR+ LR- QUADAS Scorea
Active Compression/O’Brien’s test O’Brien et al. 1998[15] Orthopaedic hospital 93 96 23.1 0.08 5
  Walton et al. 2004[13] Specialist shoulder referral centre 16 90 1.6 0.93 13
  Chronopoulos et al. 2004[14] Orthopaedic surgical waiting list 41 95 8.2 0.62 10
  Van Riet & Bell 2011[16] Orthopaedic hospital 83 N/A N/A   
Cross-body adduction Chronopoulos et al. 2004[14] Orthopaedic surgical waiting list 77 79 3.67 0.29 10
  Van Riet & Bell 2011[16] Orthopaedic hospital 67 N/A N/A N/R  
Localised ACJ tenderness Walton et al. 2004[13] Specialist shoulder referral centre 96 10 1.07 0.40 13
Hawkins Kennedy test Chronopoulos et al. 2004[14] Orthopaedic surgical waiting list 47 45 0.85 1.2 10
  1. Abbreviations: LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR-, negative likelihood ratio; QUADAS, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool[45]; N/A, not applicable; N/R, not reported; ACJ, acromioclavicular joint.
  2. aFrom Hegedus et al. (2008)[30].