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Table 3 Chronic low back pain in adults of Pelotas, in the years 2002 and 2010

From: Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

Variable     2002     2010  
  % (95% CI) p % (95% CI) p PRR (95% CI)||
Total 4.2 (3.5-5.0)   9.6 (8.3-10.8)   2.29(1.77-2.68)
Sex   <0.001§   <0.001§  
Male 2.9 (2.3-3.5)   6.6 (5.1-8.1)   2.28(1.51-3.23)
Female 5.2 (4.4-6.0)   11.7 (10.0-13.4)   2.25(1.68-2.75)
Age   <0.001§§   <0.001§§  
20-29 1.0 (0.7-1.4)   3.9 (2.4-5.4)   3.90(1.56-7.79)
30-39 3.1 (2.5-3.8)   7.6 (5.2-10.0)   2.45(1.43-4.22)
40-49 5.3 (4.6-6.1)   10.8 (8.1-13.6)   2.04(1.29-2.94)
50-59 7.7 (6.8-8.7)   12.5 (9.3-15.7)   1.62(1.07-2.35)
60-69 4.9 (4.2-5.7)   13.0 (9.2-16.8)   2.65(1.48-4.71)
≥ 70 5.3 (4.6-6.1)   12.9 (8.6-17.2)   2.43(1.17-3.85)
Skin color   0.7§   0.25§  
White 4.3 (3.6-5.1)   9.3 (7.9-10.6)   2.16(1.66-2.62)
Non white 3.9 (3.2-4.6)   10.9 (8.1-13.7)   2.79(1.59-4.41)
Education (years)   <0.001§§   <0.001§§  
0 6.9 (6.0-7.8)   14.3 (9.7-18.9)   2.07(1.10-3.94)
1-4 6.3 (5.5-7.2)   13.0 (10.2-15.7)   2.06(1.33-2.89)
5-8 4.4 (3.7-5.2)   9.7 (7.5-11.9)   2.20(1.47-3.02)
9-11 2.7 (2.2-3.3)   8.1 (5.9-10.2)   3.00(1.75-4.67)
≥ 12 2.0 (1.5-2.6)   6.8 (4.7-8.8)   3.40(1.51-6.12)
Economic status   0.07§§   0.02§§  
High 2.8 (2.3-3.4)   7.8 (5.0-10.5)   2.79(1.48-4.20)
Medium 4.6 (3.9-5.4)   9.0 (7.4-10.5)   1.96(1.41-2.63)
Low 4.6 (3.9-5.4)   11.3 (9.0-13.6)   2.46(1.67-3.20)
Smoking   0.03§§   0.007§§  
Never smoker 3.2 (2.6-3.9)   8.0 (6.6-9.4)   2.50(1.68-3.14)
Former smoker 5.0 (4.3-5.8)   11.3 (8.5-14.1)   2.26(1.50-3.47)
Current smoker 5.5 (4.7-6.3)   11.5 (9.2-13.9)   2.09(1.41-2.94)
BMI   0.01§§   <0.001§§  
≤ 19.9 2.7 (2.1-3.3)   4.3 (0.5-8.0)   1.59(0.34-3.72)
20-24.9 3.4 (2.8-4.1)   8.0 (6.1-9.8)   2.35(1.60-3.43)
25-29.9 4.1 (3.4-4.9)   8.4 (6.5-10.2)   2.05(1.33-2.75)
≥ 30 6.2 (5.4-7.1)   14.2 (11.5-16.9)   2.29(1.44-3.37)
  1. 95% Confidence Interval.
  2. BMI: Body Mass Index.
  3. § Chi-square test of heterogeneity.
  4. §§Linear test for trend.
  5. || PRRs and CIs were estimated via poisson regression.