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Table 3 Physical Exposure at the task level (measurements/observations in the field (m) and from videotape analysis (v))

From: The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

Variable Measurement
Cycle Time (seconds) SI definition (v)
Force Analyst DUE force rating (Borg CR-10) (1) Peak force (m), (2) Typical force (m), (3) Overall force (m), analyst judgment (Moore and Garg, 1995) (4) Overall force using an algorithm (Garg and Kapellusch)
Worker DUE force rating (Borg CR-10) (5) Peak force (m), (6) Typical force (m)
Matching force) (7) Grip force (m), (8) Pinch force (m), (9) Thrust force
Measurement of weights and forces (10) Object/tool weight and Center mass offset (m), (11) Pushing/pulling force (m)
Repetition (1) HAL Rating (v) (Latko 1997)
(2) No. of exertions/min (SI) (v) (Moore and Garg 1995)
Duration of Exertion (1) % duration of exertion (v) (Moore and Garg, 1995)
(2) Total duration of exertion (seconds/min) (v)
Exposure/day (hours) Supervisor/worker (m)
Hand/wrist Posture Posture categories (v)
(1) Wrist flexion: <30, 30-50, >50
(2) Wrist extension: <30, 30-50, >50
(3) Ulnar deviation: <10, 10-25, >25
(4) Radial deviation: <5, 5-25
(5) No. of exertions in each category
(6) % of cycle time in each category
(7) Peak force posture categories
(8) Overall SI posture (Moore and Garg, 1995)
Elbow Posture (1) Extension (v) (a) < 70 and (b) > 135
(2) No. of exertions (v)
(3) % cycle time (v)
(4) Forearm position (v): (Neutral, prone, supine)
Speed of work Using the Strain Index method (Moore and Garg, 1995).
Forearm Rotation % of cycle time with forearm rotation (v) > 45
Grip/pinch (1) Type of grasp (v): (a) power, (b) oblique, (c) palmer grip, (d) hook grip
(2) Type of pinch (v): (a) palmer pinch, (b) -point, 2-point, (c) lateral, (d) 2-finger scissor;
(3) Grip/pinch span (v)
(4) % cycle time in each type of grasp/pinch (v)
Localized Mechanical Compression (1) Body part (v)
(2) Category (v): (a) Negligible, (b) moderate, (c) severe)
(3)No. of exertions/min.(v)
(4)% of cycle time(s) (v)
Hand as hammer (1) Category (v): (a) Negligible, (b) moderate, (c) severe)
(2) No. of exertions/min.(v)
Tool kicks (1) Category (v): (a) Negligible, (b) moderate, (c) severe)
(2) No. of exertions/min.(v)
Gloves (1) Type (m)
(2) Fit (m)
Exposure to hand/arm vibration % of cycle time spent in (a) negligible, (b) visible and (c) severe hand/arm vibration