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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies and results

From: Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

Study City (State) Participants Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders
Alves[26] Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul) 57 community-dwelling elders who performed routine physical activity: mean age 68.5 ± 5.7; 71.9% F. CMP in the past 12 months: low back pain (40.4%); neck and shoulder pain (35.1%); knee pain (33.3%).
CMP in the past 12 months that interfered with ADLs: elbow pain (33.3%); low back pain (30.4%); shoulder pain (25.0%); wrist/hand and thoracic pain (20.0%).
CMP in the past week: thoracic pain (80.0%); elbow pain (66.7%); low back pain (65.2%); hip/thigh and neck pain (50.0%).
Backer[27] Florianópolis (Santa Catarina) 62 elders 60 years old or more*, who were seeking care from a local healthcare unit. Specific diagnoses: knee OA (37.5%). Prevalence of knee OA was positively associated with age (p < 0.01) and BMI (p < 0.05).
Cassetari[9] Botucatu (São Paulo) 355 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more: 35.3% F. CMP: knee pain (64.0%). Specific diagnosis: knee OA (20.6%).
Coimbra[10] Campinas (São Paulo) 106 elders 60 years old or more*, referred to a rheumatology triage center. Specific diagnoses: hand OA (28.3%); OA in other location (31.1%). Prevalence of hand OA was positively associated with BMI (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.11).
Dellaroza[5] Londrina (Paraná) 451 elderly municipal employees 60 years old or more: 35.3% F. CMP: pain in any location (51.4%); spinal pain (21.7%); lower limb pain (21.5%); headache (7.1%); upper limb pain (4.4%); neck pain (1.3%); pelvic pain (0.7%); other (8.4%).
Most participants reported daily intermittent CMP of low intensity that was not triggered during a specific time of the day. For those with multiple pain sites, lower limb pain was the most bothering, followed by spinal pain.
Dellaroza[11] Londrina (Paraná) 172 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more who had frequent pain complaints: 58.7% F. CMP: pain in any location (62.2%); lower limb pain (31.4%); spinal pain (30.2%); shoulder and upper limb pain (11.1%); headache (7.6%); generalized pain (4.7%); neck pain (3.4%).
Most participants reported daily intermittent CMP of low intensity that was not triggered during a specific time of the day. Prevalence of CMP was positively associated with age (p = 0.02), female gender (p < 0.01) and depression (p < 0.01).
dosReis[12] Jequié (Bahia) 131 elders 60 years old or more who were under physiotherapy treatment in a university clinic: 65.6% F. CMP: low back pain (15.3%); neck pain (6.9%); joint pain (6.1%). Specific diagnoses: OA (33.6%); fracture (9.2%); tendinitis (9.2%); herniated disc (6.1%); bursitis (3.8%); other (10.7%).
Main complaint: pain (85.5%); reduction in mobility (9.9%); paresthesia (8.4%); weakness (6.1%); gait disturbance (6.1%); stiffness (1.5%).
dosReis[13] Jequié (Bahia) 60 institutionalized elders 60 years old or more who did not present cognitive deficit: mean age 77.6 ± 11.6; 50.0% F. CMP: pain in any location (73.3%); spinal pain (31.0%); lower limb pain (28.2%); upper limb pain (14.1%); location not mentioned (2.8%).
Pain intensity: light (52.3%); moderate (34.1%); intense (13.6%). Most common pain descriptors: shooting and stabbing (sensory pain group); annoying and unbearable (affective pain group); miserable and nauseating (evaluative pain group); tiresome and tightening (miscellaneous pain group).
Prevalence of CMP was higher among elders with cognitive deficit (p < 0.01).
Giacomin[14] Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) 1,786 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more, who participated in a health survey conducted in 2003: mean age 69.7 ± 9.1; 58.9% F. Specific diagnoses: OA (16.6%). The prevalence of OA was associated with moderate difficulty in performing ADLs (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.24 - 3.25).
Lacerda[28] Goiânia (Goiás) 40 elders 60 years old or more covered by a team of the Family Health Program: 60–70 years old (57.5%), 71–80 years old (30.0%), 81–86 years old (12.5%); 67.5% F. CMP: pain in any location (62.5%); spinal pain (48.0%); lower limb pain (24.0%); headache (8.0%); pain on the right side of the body (8.0%); pain on the anterior thorax (8.0%); upper limb pain (4.0%).
Pain intensity: light (28.0%); moderate (20.0%); intense (16.0%); unbearable (36.0%).
A large proportion of participants with CMP reported functional disability (68.0%), fatigue (52.0%), sleeping disturbance (48.0%), irritability (44.0%), fear of a new lesion (32.0%), depression (28.0%) and agitation (28.0%).
Lima[15] Botucatu, Campinas, Itapecerica da Serra, Embu, Taboão da Serra, São Paulo (São Paulo) 1,958 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more, who participated in the 2001–2002 ISA-SP Study: mean age 69.9 ± 0.4; 57.2% F. CMP: back pain (30.1%). Specific diagnoses: arthritis or rheumatism (27.2%).
Lima-Costa[16]a] All Federation Units and Federal District 28,943 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more, who participated in the 1998 PNAD study: mean age 69.5 (95% IC 69.4 - 69.6); 55.5% F. Specific diagnoses: arthritis or rheumatism (37.5%; 95% CI 35.4% - 40.0%).
Lima-Costa[16]b] Same as above 35,042 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more, who participated in the 2003 PNAD study: mean age 69.8 (95% IC 69.5 - 69.9); 55.9% F. Specific diagnoses: arthritis or rheumatism (27.3%; 95% CI 25.4% - 29.2%).
Prevalence decreased from 1998 to 2003 (PR 0.72; 95% CI 0.70 - 0.75).
Lima-Costa[16]c] Same as above 41,269 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more, who participated in the 2008 PNAD study: mean age 69.9 (95% IC 69.8 - 70.0); 56.2% F. Specific diagnoses: arthritis or rheumatism (24.2%).
Prevalence decreased from 1998 to 2008 (PR 0.64; 95% CI 0.62 - 0.66).
Liposcki[17] Lages (Santa Catarina) 101 elders 60 years old or more: mean age 77.1 (range 60–106); 62.4% F. Specific diagnoses: OA (39.6%). Self-report of OA was associated with the report of falls in the previous 6 months (p = 0.02).
Machado[18] Bambuí (Minas Gerais) 1,606 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more: 60.1% F. CMP: hand and knee pain (44.2%). Specific diagnoses: arthritis or rheumatism (25.3%).
Prevalence of CMP was lower among men (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.46 - 0.69), elders with 8 or more years of study** (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33 - 0.75), with income of at least 10 times the minimum wage†† (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40 - 0.90) and current smokers‡‡ (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.50 - 0.87). Prevalence of CMP was higher among elders with BMI from 30 to 34 Kg/m2 (OR 3.07; 95% CI 1.97 - 4.80)*** and those reporting previous myocardial infarct (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.39 - 3.67), cerebrovascular accident (OR 4.32; 95% CI 2.35 - 7.93), Chagas disease (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.42 - 2.27) and diabetes (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.90).
    Prevalence of specific diagnoses was lower among men (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.30 - 0.50) and previous smokers‡‡ (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.50 - 0.90). Prevalence of specific diagnoses was higher among elders with BMI from 30 to 34 Kg/m2 (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.47 - 3.88)***, with cholesterol levels from 200 to 239 m% (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.06 - 1.98)††† and those reporting previous myocardial infarct (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.84), cerebrovascular accident (OR1.75; 95% CI 1.02 - 3.00) and Chagas disease (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03 - 1.73).
Menéndez[19] São Paulo (São Paulo) and 6 other cities in Latin America and the Caribbean 2,143 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more: mean age 73.3; 58.9% F. Specific diagnoses: OA (32.8%). Prevalence of OA was associated with the difficulty in performing ADLs and IADLs (p < 0.01).
Panazzolo[29] Londrina (Paraná) 245 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more: mean age 68.8 ± 6.9; 57.6% F. CMP: pain in any location (67.7%); lower limb pain (42.0%); low back pain (27.8%).
Panazzolo[30] Londrina (Paraná) 111 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more: mean age 70.1 ± 7.5; 65.8% F. CMP: lower limb pain (52.3%); spinal pain (48.6%).
Most participants with lower limb pain reported daily intermittent episodes. Most spinal pain was of high intensity (75.9%). CMP was associated with difficulties in performing the following functional tasks: walk near home (p < 0.01); get in and out of bed (p < 0.05); travel (p < 0.01); shop (p < 0.01); cook own meal (p < 0.01); domestic chores (p < 0.01); take care of own money (p = 0.05).
Pain interfered with sleep and mood in 61.3% and 55.0% of participants, respectively.
Rey[20] Curitiba (Paraná) 239 elders 60 years old or more*, who lived in long-term care institutions or who sought care at an Emergency Department of a University Hospital or at a Basic Healthcare Unit. Specific diagnoses: hand OA (14.2%). Prevalence of OA was associated with female gender (p < 0.01).
[21] Salvador (Bahia) 197 community-dwelling elders 65 years old or more*, who participated in the MONIT Study: 62.4% F. CMP: pain in any location (56.3%).
CMP was associated with female gender (p < 0.05). Prevalence of CMP was lower among female elders reporting moderate alcohol consumption‡‡‡ (adjusted OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57 - 0.97) and single male elders**** (adjusted OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47 - 0.98). Prevalence of CMP was higher among female elders reporting excessive alcohol consumption‡‡‡ (adjusted OR 7.11; 95% CI 1.59 - 31.82), previous female and male smokers‡‡ (adjusted OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.02 - 1.96 and 1.78; 95% CI 1.22 - 2.59, respectively) and current male smokers‡‡ (adjusted OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02).
Sampaio[25] Jequié (Bahia) 25 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more who took part in a third age relationship group: 60.0% F. CMP: pain in any location (77.7%); lower limb pain (21.0%); low back pain (20.0%); shoulder pain (20.0%); upper limb pain (11.0%); neck pain (7.0%); hip pain (1.0%).
Specific diagnoses: herniated disc (26.9%); fracture (18.1%); bursitis (16.9%); tendinitis (14.4%); OA (9.4%); chondromalacia (9.4%).
Santos[22] São Paulo (São Paulo) 361 community-dwelling elders 65 years old or more: mean age 73.3 ± 5.7; 64.0% F. CMP: chronic widespread pain (14.1%; 95% CI 10.5% - 17.7%).
Specific diagnoses: fibromyalgia (5.5%; 95% CI 5.4% - 5.7%).
    CMP was associated with female gender (p < 0.01) and fewer years of education (p < 0.05).
Participants with fibromyalgia had higher BMI than those without pain (p < 0.05) and lower pain threshold (p < 0.001), higher fatigue, tiredness, stiffness and impact on work than those with chronic widespread pain (p < 0.05). Participants with fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain had higher anxiety scores than those without pain (p < 0.05).
Senna[23] Montes Claros (Minas Gerais) 48 community-dwelling elders 75 years old or more. Specific diagnoses: OA (22.9%; 95% CI 11.1% - 34.9%); fibromyalgia (0%).
Silva[24] Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul) 583 community-dwelling elders 60 years old or more. CMP: low back pain (5.1%).
  1. Legend: F Female; CMP chronic musculoskeletal pain; OA osteoarthritis; BMI body mass index; ADL activities of daily living; IADLs instrumental activities of daily living; ISA-SP São Paulo State Health Survey; PNAD National Household Survey; MONIT Project Monitoring Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes; CI confidence interval; OR odds ratio PR prevalence ratio. Mean age ± standard deviation were presented when available in the study report. *Data on elders were extracted from graph or table provided by authors. CI retrieved from a previous publication. Data on Brazilian participants extracted from table provided by authors. **Compared with illiterate elders. ††Compared with elders with income < 2 times the minimum wage. ‡‡Compared with non-smokers. ***Compared with elders with BMI < 20 Kg/m2. †††Compared with elders with cholesterol < 200 m%. ‡‡‡Compared with non-drinkers. ****Compared with married male elders.