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Table 1 Measures of prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders

From: Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

Study Measure of prevalence
Alves[26] In a face-to-face interview, participants filled in the Portuguese-Brazil version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire [32], which assessed the presence of pain or discomfort in a specific anatomical area in the past 12 months and in the past week (including present pain), and if the pain interfered with activities of daily living.
Backer[27] Health care practitioner followed the ACR criteria to diagnose knee OA by clinical examination.
Cassettari[9] In a face-to-face interview, participants (or caregiver) were asked if they had knee pain. Participants reporting knee pain were examined by a rheumatologist to confirm the clinical diagnosis of OA.
Coimbra[10] Medical diagnosis of OA by clinical examination. Details of the examination were not described. Diagnosis of hand OA was confirmed by x-ray.
Dellaroza[5] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of musculoskeletal pain lasting for 6 months or more (continuous or recurrent pain) in the past 12 months, its location, frequency and intensity.
Dellaroza[11] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of musculoskeletal pain lasting for 6 months or more (continuous or recurrent pain), its location, frequency and intensity.
dosReis[12] Medical records were screened and data were extracted regarding musculoskeletal diagnoses and main complaints.
dosReis[13] In a face-to-face interview, participants filled in the McGill Pain Questionnaire [33], which assessed pain location, pain descriptors and intensity.
Giacomin[14] In a face-to-face interview, participants (or another household member or caregiver) were asked if they had ever received the diagnosis of arthritis by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Lacerda[28] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of chronic pain, defined as "an unpleasant sensorial or emotional experience, constant or recurrent, which end cannot be foreseen, lasting for more than 6 months", its location and intensity.
Lima[15] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked if they had one of the following musculoskeletal problems: arthritis, rheumatism and back pain.
Lima-Costa[16]a] In a face-to-face interview, participants (or another household member or caregiver) were asked if they had arthritis or rheumatism.
Lima-Costa[16]b] In a face-to-face interview, participants (or another household member or caregiver) were asked if they had ever received the diagnosis of arthritis or rheumatism by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Lima-Costa[16]c] Same as above.
Liposcki[17] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked if they had OA.
Machado[18] In a face-to-face interview, participants (or another household member or caregiver) were asked if they had ever been diagnosed with rheumatism by a doctor and the level of associated disability, and if they had ever presented with pain (including aching and stiffness) in the hands or knees on most days for at least 6 weeks. These questions were copied from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [34] and translated by the authors to Portuguese-Brazil.
Menéndez[19] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked if they had arthritis.
Panazzolo[29] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of musculoskeletal pain lasting for 6 months or more (continuous or recurrent pain) and its location.
Panazzolo[30] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of musculoskeletal pain lasting for 6 months or more (continuous or recurrent pain), its location, frequency and intensity, and if pain interfered with function, sleep or mood.
Rey[20] Assessor followed the ACR criteria to diagnose hand OA by clinical examination.
[21] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of chronic pain, defined as pain felt more than one time at the same body region for over 6 months, and its location.
Sampaio[25] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of chronic pain and pre-existing musculoskeletal pathologies.
Santos[22] Chronic widespread pain was diagnosed by two trained researchers if the participant presented with diffuse pain in the axial skeleton on both sides of the body, above and beyond the hip, for more than 3 months with less than 11 positive tender points (assessed using a Fischer dolorimeter). Fibromyalgia was diagnosed by a rheumatologist according to the ACR criteria.
Senna[23] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of pain or tenderness in bones, joints, or muscles in the last 7 days that was not related to trauma. Those answering “yes” were examined by a rheumatologist to confirm the diagnosis of OA or fibromyalgia.
Silval[24] In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about the presence of low back pain for at least 7 weeks.
  1. Legend: OA osteoarthritis; ACR American College of Rheumatology.