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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the no-LBP and CLBP groups, by gender

From: Chronic low back pain is associated with reduced vertebral bone mineral measures in community-dwelling adults

  No-LBP group CLBP group Mean difference (95% CI)
between groups
Characteristic male female gender mean difference (95% CI) male female gender mean
difference (95% CI)
Male female
N (%) 17 (40.5) 25 (59.5)   11 (37.9) 18 (62.1)    
Age (years) 35.8 (14.0) 36.2 (12.0) -0.3 (-8.5,7.8) 36.2 (15.4) 34.7 (14.3) 1.5 (-10.1, 13.0) -0.4 (-11.9, 11.2) 1.4 (-6.7, 9.6)
Height (cm) 179.3 (7.1) 163.4 (7.7) 15.9 (11.6, 20.6)* 177.6 (4.4) 165.1 (6.0) 12.5 (8.2, 16.8)* 1.7 (-3.2, 6.6) -1.7 (-6.1, 2.7)
Mass (kg) 79.1 (13.1) 61.8 (10.4) 17.3 (10.0, 24.6)* 81.3 (8.1) 66.3 (9.1) 15.0 (8.1, 21.9)* -2.2 (-11.3, 6.9) -4.5 (-10.7, 1.6)
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 (3.1) 23.1 (3.0) 1.4 (-0.5, 3.4) 25.8 (2.7) 24.3 (3.0) 1.5 (-0.8, 3.8) -1.3 (-3.6, 1.1) -1.2 (-3.1, 0.6)
Hip girth (cm) 98.4 (7.2) 96.1 (9.3) 2.3 (-3.1, 7.7) 101.3 (6.2) 100.4 (7.1) 0.9 (-4.5, 6.2) -2.8 (-8.2, 2.6) -4.3 (-9.5, 1.0)
Waist girth (cm) 84.4 (8.6) 73.2 (10.3) 11.2 (5.2, 17.4)* 86.6 (8.5) 76.2 (9.3) 10.4 (3.3, 17.4)* -2.3 (-9.0, 4.6) -3.1 (-9.3, 3.1)
Back muscle endurance (sec) [range 0-360] 188.8 (49.9) 216.4 (92.6) -27.6 (-77.4, 22.2) 165.3 (51.9) 148.6 (72.9) 16.7 (-35.1, 68.4) 23.5 (-16.8, 63.8) 67.8 (14.7, 120.8)*
DASS-21 depression [range 0-21] 2.1 (3.8) 2.8 (5.6) -0.7 (-3.9, 2.4) 4.2 (6.7) 2.1 (2.4) 2.2 (-1.4, 5.7) -2.2 (-6.3, 1.9) 0.7 (-2.1, 3.6)
DASS-21 anxiety [range 0-21] 1.8 (2.3) 2.5 (4.6) -0.7 (-3.2, 1.7) 2.9 (2.7) 3.1 (3.4) -0.2 (-2.7, 2.3) -1.1 (-3.1, 0.8) -0.6 (-3.2, 1.9)
DASS-21 stress [range 0-21] 8.7 (7.4) 10.1 (7.0) -1.4 (-5.9, 3.2) 6.5 (6.2) 8.8 (4.9) -2.2 (-6.5, 2.0) 2.2 (-3.4, 7.7) 1.3 (-2.6, 5.2)
Days/week of vigorous physical activity (days) [range 0-7] 4.1 (1.9) 3.4 (3.4) 0.8 (-0.3, 1.8) 3.6 (2.3) 3.1 (1.4) 0.4 (-1.0, 1.8) 0.6 (-1.1, 2.2) 0.2 (-0.7, 1.2)
ODI (%)     16.2 (8.7) 15.4 (9.1) 0.7 (-6.3, 7.8)   
LBP history (yrs)     13.3 (10.4) 11.6 (9.9) 1.8 (-6.1, 9.7)   
Intensity of LBP in last week; median (IQR)     4 (2) 5 (3)    
Episodes LBP last year; n (%)         
1-3     0 (0) 0 (0)    
4-10     3 (27.3) 8 (44.4)    
> 10     8 (72.7) 10 (55.6)    
Work days missed with last year; n (%)         
0     9 (81.8) 12 (66.7)    
1-2     2 (18.2) 3 (16.7)    
3-7      3 (16.7)    
Interference with normal activities; % reporting 'yes'     5 (45.5) 8 (44.4)    
Interference with recreational activities; % reporting 'yes'     6 (54.5) 8 (44.4)    
Currently taking analgesic medication; % reporting 'yes' 8 (19.0) 19 (45.2)   8 (27.6) 12 (41.4)    
Currently taking NSAID medication; % reporting 'yes' 0 (0) 1 (2.4)   2 (6.9) 2 (6.9)    
PA L3 BMC (g) 20.89 (3.39) 16.72 (3.24) 4.17 (2.05, 6.28)* 20.03 (1.93) 16.46 (3.55) 3.56 (1.17, 5.96)* 0.86 (-1.46, 3.18) 0.26 (-1.87, 2.38)
PA L3 aBMD (g/cm2) 1.13 (0.13) 1.08 (0.14) 0.48 (-0.04, 0.14) 1.11 (0.11) 1.10 (0.19) 0.02 (-0.12, 0.15) 0.02 (-0.08, 0.12) -0.01 (-0.12, 0.09)
PA total spine BMC (g) 79.07 (12.33) 61.30 (13.05) 17.77 (9.66, 25.88)* 75.79 (8.39) 63.50 (13.98) 12.30 (2.70, 21.88)* 3.28 (-5.46, 12.01) -2.20 (-10.59, 6.19)
PA total spine aBMD (g/cm2) 1.15 (0.12) 1.04 (0.14) 0.06 (-0.02, 0.15) 1.08 (0.10) 1.06 (0.18) 0.02 (-0.11, 0.14) 0.03 (-0.06, 0.12) -0.02 (-0.12, 0.08)
PA total spine T-score 0.08 (1.28) -0.06 (1.27) 0.14 (-0.75, 1.03) -0.08 (0.99) 0.32 (1.63) -0.40 (-1.66, 0.86) 0.15 (-0.90, 1.21) -0.38 (-1.35, 0.58)
Lateral L3 BMC (g) 9.42 (1.89) 7.80 (1.74) 1.62 (0.45, 2.79)* 8.71 (1.54) 8.36 (1.64) 0.35 (-0.93, 1.62) 0.72 (-0.69, 2.12) -0.56 (-1.66, 0.54)
Lateral L3 aBMD (g/cm2) 0.82 (0.13) 0.77 (0.11) 0.06 (-0.02, 0.14) 0.74 (0.12) 0.78 (0.10) -0.04 (-0.12, 0.04) 0.08 (-0.02, 0.18) -0.02 (-0.08, 0.05)
Lateral L3 ap.vBMD (g/cm3) 0.21 (0.03) 0.22 (0.03) -0.01 (-0.03, 0.01) 0.20 (0.03) 0.23 (0.02) -0.03 (-0.06, -0.01) 0.02 (-0.01, 0.04) -0.01 (-0.02, 0.01)
  1. *significant difference (p < 0.05)
  2. DASS-21 21 item depression, anxiety and stress scale
  3. ODI oswestry disability index
  4. LBP low back pain
  5. IQR inter-quartile range
  6. NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  7. PA postero-anterior
  8. BMC bone mineral content
  9. aBMD areal bone mineral density
  10. ap.vBMD: apparent volumetric bone mineral density
  11. Continuous data are expressed as the mean (SD) and categorical data as the frequency (n) and proportion (%). The mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) are calculated within groups and between groups for continuous data. DXA-derived parameters are unadjusted in this table