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Table 3 Factors associated with non-success (SBI ≥ 7) at 1 and 2 years. ORs with p <; 0.10 are in italics in the univariate analyses

From: Prognostic factors for non-success in patients with sciatica and disc herniation

  1 year n = 409 2 years n = 376
  Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI OR 95% CI p
Sociodemographic variables           
Age 1.03 (1.01 − 1.04) 1.02 (1.00 − 1.04) 0.078 1.02 (1.00 − 1.04) 1.02 (1.00  1.04) 0.150
Male sex (ref female) 0.80 (0.54  1.19) 1.13 (0.71 − 1.82) 0.606 1.06 (0.70  1.60) 1.36 (0.83  2.22) 0.218
Smoking (ref nonsmoking) 1.57 (1.06 − 2.34)     1.62 (1.07 − 2.46) 1.69 (1.06  2.68) 0.028
Education, years (continuous) 0.99 (0.92  1.05)     0.94 (0.88 − 1.01)    
Partly sick leave (ref working) 1.00 (0.48  2.09)     0.83 (0.38  1.82)    
Complete sick leave, rehabilitation (ref working) 1.32 (0.79  2.21)     1.20 (0.70  2.07)    
Disability pension (ref working) 2.24 (0.94 − 5.34)     1.39 (0.56  3.44)    
Other (ref working) 1.11 (0.54  2.28)     0.92 (0.43  2.00)    
Back pain/sciatica history           
Previous sciatica episodes >; 0 (ref 0) 1.47 (0.99 − 2.17)     1.00 (0.67  1.51)    
Duration back problems ≥ 1 years (ref <;1 year) 1.97 (1.27 − 3.06)     1.84 (1.16 − 2.93)    
Duration current sciatica episode ≥ 3 mos. (ref <; 3 mos.) 1.01 (0.68  1.49)     1.14 (0.75  1.72)    
Self-reported health status           
Maine-Seattle Back Questionnaire (continuous) 1.10 (1.02 − 1.19)     1.12 (1.03 − 1.22)    
Pain intensity* back (continuous) 1.02 (1.01 − 1.02) 1.02 (1.01  1.03) <;0.001 1.02 (1.01 − 1.02) 1.02 (1.01  1.03) <;0.001
Pain intensity* leg (continuous) 1.01 (1.00  1.01)     1.00 (0.99  1.01)    
Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (continuous) 1.09 (1.05 − 1.14) 1.06 (1.00  1.12) 0.037 1.07 (1.03 − 1.12) 1.03 (0.97  1.09) 0.346
Subjective health complaints (continuous) 1.12 (1.07 − 1.18) 1.10 (1.04  1.16) 0.001 1.09 (1.04 − 1.15) 1.07 (1.01  1.13) 0.033
Kinesiophobia† (continuous) 1.03 (1.00 − 1.06)     1.02 (0.99  1.06)    
Emotional distress‡ (continuous) 1.93 (1.22 − 3.05)     1.88 (1.15 − 3.07)    
Clinical finding           
Muscular weakness (ref no weakness) 1.93 (1.30 − 2.88) 1.70 (1.07  2.72) 0.026 1.96 (1.29 − 2.97) 1.94 (1.19  3.15) 0.008
Reflex reduced or absent (ref normal reflexes) 1.09 (0.74  1.61)     1.33 (0.88  2.01)    
Sensory loss (ref intact sensibility) 1.85 (1.24 − 2.76)     1.69 (1.11 − 2.58)    
Straight-leg-raising test <; 60° (ref >; 60°) 1.13 (0.76  1.68)     1.05 (0.69  1.58)    
No surgery (ref surgery) 2.78 (1.76 − 4.37) 3.81 (2.23  6.50) <;0.001 1.80 (1.14 − 2.83) 2.25 (1.32  3.81) 0.003
  1. Multivariate analyses are adjusted for age, sex, and baseline SBI. The variable no surgery/surgery was added to the final model. In the multivariable analyses, significant variables, adjusted variables and the variable no surgery/surgery are presented
  2. *Visual analogue scale; †Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia; ‡ Hopkins Symptom Check List-25