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Table 3 Results of mixed models for primary outcomes

From: Manual therapy followed by specific active exercises versus a placebo followed by specific active exercises on the improvement of functional disability in patients with chronic non specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome Predictors Coeff 95% CI P
Immediate effect on pain (base line = before each session)
VAS-pain Immediate effect Intervention −0.76 [−1.22;-0.30] 0.001*
Time 0.02 [−0.03;0.06] 0.484
Pain baseline −0.27 [−0.33;-0.20] <0.001
Constant 0.81 [0.29;1.33] 0.002
Treatment effect on time (base line = before treatment)
VAS-pain Average 24 hour Treatment −1.24 [−2.37;-0.11] 0.032
Time −0.20 [−0.69;0.29] 0.426
Pain baseline 0.43 [0.17;0.69] 0.001
Constant 1.68 [−0.37;3.73] 0.108
ODI Treatment −7.14 [−12.80;-1.52] 0.013*
Time −1.80 [−3.92;0.33] 0.097
ODI baseline 1.95 [1.50;2.39] <0.001
Constant 0.40 [−7.88;8.68] 0.924
  1. * Statistical significance for primary outcomes (P < 0.025).
  2. Since the time by treatment interactions were not statistically significant, the analyses were repeated after dropping the interaction terms.
  3. Coeff = regression coefficients: same interpretation as for ordinary (least square) regression.
  4. CI = confidence intervals; VAS-pain, Visual Analogue Scale of pain; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index.
  5. VAS-pain (immediate effect) was the pain difference before and after each session, and time was the number of the 8 therapeutic sessions.
  6. VAS-pain (average 24 hour) and ODI were calculated over time, i.e., before (baseline) and after the 8th therapeutic session, as well as at 3 and 6 months after the end of the treatment.