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Table 4 Results of the mixed-effects meta-regressions for the continuous moderator variables on the effect sizes obtained from measures of behaviours in the posttest

From: Preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

Cluster / Moderator variable k Min. Max. Mean SD b j Q R Q E(df) R 2
(A) Treatment characteristics:          
Treatment duration (weeks) 13 1.0 96.0 20.4 33.8 0.001 0.02 283.61(11)*** 0.0
Treatment intensity (hours/week) 10 0.2 1.0 0.6 0.4 1.784 3.51a 199.91(8)*** 0.0
Treatment magnitude (total hours) 10 0.2 6.0 3.2 2.5 0.324 4.87* 192.62(8)*** 0.0
(B) Subject characteristics:          
Mean age (years) 11 10.0 12.0 11.0 0.7 −0.662 1.84 251.97(9)*** 0.0
Gender (% male) 11 43.3 58.2 50.1 5.2 −0.033 0.29 253.92(9)*** 0.0
(C) Methodological characteristics:          
Differential attrition 13 0.0 0.033 0.003 0.009 11.265 0.14 272.07(11)*** 0.0
Quality score 13 5.0 6.5 6.1 0.6 1.040 5.87* 259.63(11)*** 0.035
(D) Extrinsic characteristic:          
Publication year 13 1984 2011 2000 8.4 0.036 1.20 282.19(11)*** 0.0
  1. a p = .06. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. k: number of studies. Min. and Max.: minimum and maximum values of the moderator variable. SD: standard deviation of the moderator variable. b j: unstandardized regression coefficient associated to the moderator variable. Q R: statistic for testing the significance of the moderator variable. Q E: statistic for testing the model misspecification. df: degrees of freedom. R 2: proportion of variance accounted for by the moderator variable. The statistical analyses here presented were carried out excluding the Méndez and Gómez’s (2001) d index of 13.033[20].