SEM micrographs of the tibia. The rats of the control group revealed normal compactness of the diaphysis and competent trabeculae (A). The passive smoking animals showed sparse, uniform thinning of the trabeculae resulting in widened intertrabecular spaces (B). The passive smoking and L-EPF group exhibited significant remodeling progress with mineralization (C). The group treated with M-EPF (D) and H-EPF (E) showed nearly essential features of normal bone.