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Table 3 Mean (SD) values and 95% confidence interval for the primary and secondary outcomes.

From: A randomised controlled trial of preventive spinal manipulation with and without a home exercise program for patients with chronic neck pain

Outcome measure Group Baseline Initiation of RCT Mid-trial End of trial
Mean pain: VAS (SD), cm Attention-control 3.8 ± 1.9 (3.0 to 4.5) 2.5 ± 2.1 (1.8 to 3.3) 3.3 ± 2.6 (2.2 to 4.3) 2.9 ± 2.9 (1.9 to 4.0)
  SMT 3.3 ± 1.7 (2.7 to 3.9) 2.1 ± 1.7 (1.5 to 2.7) 2.3 ± 2.3 (1.5 to 3.1) 2.1 ± 2.3 (1.2 to 2.9)
  SMT + exercises 3.4 ± 1.7 (2.9 to 4.0) 2.2 ± 1.7 (1.6 to 2.8) 2.1 ± 2.3 (1.3 to 2.9) 1.6 ± 2.3 (0.8 to 2.4)
NDI Attention-control 26.1 ± 12.7 (21.4 to 30.9) 25.5 ± 4.5 (17.8 to 27.2) 20.2 ± 13.8 (15.0 to 25.4) 21.5 ± 14.0 (16.1 to 26.8)
  SMT 21.5 ± 10.7 (17.8 to 25.2) 15.7 ± 10.7 (12.0 to 19.4) 14.9 ± 11.8 (10.8 to 19.0) 13.7 ± 12.1 (9.5 to 17.9)
  SMT + exercises 21.4 ± 10.4 (17.8 to 25.0) 15.5 ± 10.4 (11.9 to 19.1) 13.5 ± 11.6 (9.5 to 17.5) 11.3 ± 11.8 (7.3 to 15.4)
Bournemouth Attention-control 29.8 ± 15.4 (23.9 to 35.6) 22.1 ± 14.8 (16.6 to 27.7) 16.7 ± 11.7 (12.3 to 21.1) 18.6 ± 12.7 (13.7 to 23.4)
  SMT 27.0 ± 12.7 (22.7 to 31.4) 18.6 ± 12.1 (14.4 to 22.8) 10.9 ± 9.5 (7.6 to 14.2) 12.8 ± 10.4 (9.2 to 16.4)
  SMT + exercises 21.5 ± 13.0 (16.9 to 26.0) 15.3 ± 12.7 (10.9 to19.7) 10.8 ± 10.1 (7.4 to 14.3) 8.5 ± 11.0 (4.6 to 12.3)
Flexion-extension Attention-control 110.0 ± 22.8 (101.5 to 118.6) 100.8 ± 21.2 (92.8 to 108.8) 106.3 ± 19.1 (99.0 to 113.5) 106.1 ± 23.3 (97.4 to 114.9)
  SMT 124.5 ± 16.5 (118.8 to 130.2) 108.5 ± 20.5 (101.5 to 115.6) 114.4 ± 22.5 (106.5 to 122.2) 114.1 ± 21.0 (107.0 to 121.3)
  SMT + exercises 124.5 ± 16.5 (118.8 to 130.2) 105.8 ± 25.1 (97.1 to 114.5) 115.5 ± 16.2 (109.9 to 121.1) 115.6 ± 22.5 (107.8 to 123.4)
Rotation Attention-control 114.0 ± 19.1 (106.8 to 121.2) 118.1 ± 17.5 (112.1 to 124.7) 118.4 ± 15.9 (112.4 to 124.4) 119.5 ± 15.4 (113.6 to 125.3)
  SMT 117.1 ± 17.0 (111.2 - 123.0) 124.9 ± 17.6 (118.7 - 131.0) 123.4 ± 28.0 (113.7 - 133.1) 126.9 ± 29.5 (116.7 - 137.1)
  SMT + exercises 114.7 ± 24.8 (106.1 - 123.3) 120.9 ± 20.5 (113.9 - 128.0) 122.8 ± 30.3 (112.3 - 133.3) 126.7 ± 25.7 (117.8 - 135.6)
Lateral Flexion Attention-control 63.7 ± 15.4 (58.0 - 69.5) 68.8 ± 13.2 (63.7 - 73.8) 74.7 ± 15.9 (68.8 - 80.7) 70.5 ± 11.1 (66.2 - 74.7)
  SMT 66.3 ± 20.8 (59.1 - 73.5) 68.9 ± 15.3 (63.6 - 74.2) 75.8 ± 24.5 (67.2 - 84.3) 67.1 ± 13.6 (62.5 - 71.8)
  SMT + exercises 59.4 ± 17.9 (53.2 - 65.6) 59.6 ± 17.3 (53.6 - 65.6) 68.1 ± 18.5 (61.7 - 74.5) 70.8 ± 23.7 (62.6 - 79.0)