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Table 3 Reliability for hand assessment variables (summarised from assessments at multiple sites)

From: Hand assessment in older adults with musculoskeletal hand problems: a reliability study

  Inter-observer reliability (n= 55) Intra-observer reliability (n= 54)
  Agr % Median (range) Kappa Median (range) Agr % Median (range) Kappa Median (range)
Upper limb function1 89.1 (80.0, 100.0) 0.65 (0.00, 0.91) 91.6 (79.6, 100) 0.69 (0.00, 0.94)
Pain/tenderness2 94.5 (78.2, 100.0) 0.64 (0.22, 1.00) 96.3 (85.2, 100.0) 0.69 (-0.02, 1.00)
Deformity3 91.8 (54.5, 100.0) 0.51 (-0.03, 1.00) 96.3 (85.2, 100.0) 0.69 (-0.02, 1.00)
Thumb opposition*4 98.2 (72.7, 100.0) 0.51 (0.00, 1.00) 98.1 (81.1, 100.0) 0.19 (0.00, 1.00)
Any bony change^3 81.8 (63.6, 98.2) 0.43 (0.00, 0.72) 83.3 (63.0, 100.0) 0.47 (0.00, 0.79)
Muscle wasting5 80.0 (72.7, 85.5) 0.28 (0.00, 0.38) 88.9 (81.5, 98.1) 0.29 (0.00, 0.65)
Bony enlargement3 81.8 (60.0, 98.2) 0.20 (-0.10, 0.68) 84.3 (61.1, 100.0) 0.30 (-0.03, 0.66)
Sensation6 61.8 (47.3, 70.9) 0.18 (0.04, 0.38) 76.9 (61.1, 85.2) 0.31 (0.07, 0.68)
Pain on resisted movement7 68.2 (61.8, 72.7) 0.16 (0.02, 0.23) 82.4 (74.5, 85.2) 0.31 (0.22, 0.50)
Nodes3 98.2 (65.5, 100.0) 0.00 (-0.07, 0.69) 96.3 (68.5, 100.0) 0.24 (-0.05, 1.00)
Swelling2 98.2 (85.5, 100.0) 0.00 (-0.03, 0.66) 99.1 (87.0, 100.0) 0.00 (-0.07, 1.00)
  1. Abbreviations: Agr % = observed percentage agreement. *Calculated on 53 cases for intra observer reliability; ^any bony change is defined as bony enlargement or nodes. 1Comprising seven movements per upper limb, adapted from Doherty et al., (1992); 2Nineteen joints/areas per hand; 3Sixteen joints/areas per hand; 4Kapandji (1992); 5Four areas per hand; 6Semmes-Weinstein™ monofilaments used to assess median, radial and ulna nerve areas; 7wrist flexion/extension and thumb flexion/extension.