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Table 5 Comparisons of EMG muscle activity during bilateral arm elevation in subjects with chronic neck pain.a

From: Influence of pain location and hand dominance on scapular kinematics and EMG activities: an exploratory study

Muscle Effect F P Observed power
Sternocleidomastoid muscle Dominanceb 0.01 0.95 0.50
  Phaseb 22.57 0.00* 1.00
  Groupb 0.21 0.81 0.08
  Dominance*Group 0.42 0.66 0.11
  Phase*Group 1.07 0.41 0.49
  Dominance*Phase 1.24 0.32 0.36
  Dominance*Phase*Group 1.06 0.41 0.48
Upper trapezius muscle Dominanceb 0.01 0.95 0.05
  Phaseb 129.17 0.00* 1.00
  Groupb 1.07 0.34 0.22
  Dominance*Group 0.24 0.79 0.08
  Phase*Group 1.67 0.12 0.72
  Dominance*Phase 0.72 0.62 0.21
  Dominance*Phase*Group 0.59 0.82 0.26
  1. a Repeated measures ANOVA
  2. b Dominance effect: right handed vs. left handed; Phase effect: humeral ascending and descending phases; Group effect: neck pain on dominant side/non-dominant side/both sides
  3. *: P value < 0.05