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Table 2 Description of the exercises for the McKenzie group

From: Effectiveness of the back school and mckenzie techniques in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Exercise Position Series
Trunk Flexion Lying down: prone position with knees and hips flexed and feet supported on the plinth. The patient is instructed to raise the knees towards the chest, applying extra pressure with the hands towards the knees.
Seated: seated in a chair with the knees and hips at 90 degrees, the patient shifts the forward, until the head is between the knees and the hands are as close as possible to the floor. For the most effective effect, the patient can hold the ankles bringing the trunk even closer to the front.
Standing: with the feet placed shoulder-width apart, the patient places his hands on the front part of the thighs gliding them as much as possible in the direction of the floor keeping the knees extended.
3 sets of 10 repetitions
Could be performed sequentially with a small break between them or divided at distinct times of day in accordance with the responses of the patient.
Trunk Extension Lying down: patient begins in prone position with the palms of the hands facing down below the shoulders. Patient extends the elbows, elevating the upper part of the body, while the pelvis and the thighs remain relaxed.
Standing: with the feet placed shoulder-width apart and the hands placed at the base of the low back with fingers pointed towards the floor, incline the trunk backwards for as long as possible, keeping the head relaxed.
3 sets of 10 repetitions
Could be performed sequentially with a small break between them or divided at distinct times of day in accordance with the responses of the patient.
Lateral Shift Standing with upper arm support: with the feet placed shoulder-width apart and the upper arm supine at 90° of elbow flexion in contact with the lateral trunk toward the shifting side, using the other hand, shift the pelvis to the side supported by the upper arm.
Standing with wall support: with the feet placed shoulder-width apart, support one of the upper arms on the wall and use the other hand to shift the pelvis in the direction of the wall.
3 sets of 10 repetitions
Could be performed sequentially with a small break between them or divided at distinct times of day in accordance with the responses of the patient.