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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Assessing a risk tailored intervention to prevent disabling low back pain - protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria • consulting for low back pain
  • age 20 to 60 years
  • German language proficiency
  • ability to give informed consent
Exclusion criteria • treatment for the present low back pain episode for more than 3 months
  • severe co-morbidity (cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory disease or tumors)
  • back pain of specific origin, e.g. ankylosing spondylitis
  • prior spine surgery
  • specialized pain treatment or rehabilitation for low back pain within the last 5 years
  • ongoing early retirement or pension claim
  • poor general condition
  • severe pain during night or rest
  • signs of radiculopathy like numbness, muscle weakness, loss of reflexes