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Table 2 Disability and pain outcomes for 111 WAD1-2 patients at 12 months follow-up

From: Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

  NDI score > 8% NRS-11 neck pain score > 4
  % p* % p*
Gender   0.125   0.032
   Women 50.8   28.6  
   Men 35.4   10.4  
Age, years   0.286   0.759
   < 20 50.0   14.3  
   20-30 38.6   22.7  
   30-40 34.8   13.0  
   40-50 63.6   27.3  
   >50 37.5   25.0  
Initial pain   0.034   <0.001
   NRS-11 score ≤ 4 34.4   8.2  
   NRS-11 score > 4 56.0   36.0  
Post traumatic stress   0.015   0.011
   IES score < 26 36.0   13.3  
   IES score ≥ 26 61.1   36.1  
Expectations of recovery   0.001   0.013
   High 36.7   15.6  
   Low 76.2   42.9  
Grades 2-3 MRI alar ligament changes†   0.229   0.143
   No 39.7   16.4  
   Yes 52.6   28.9  
Grades 2-3 MRI transverse ligament changes†   0.493   0.588
   No 41.9   22.1  
   Yes 52.0   16.0  
  1. WAD = whiplash-associated disorders; NDI = neck disability index; NRS-11 = 11-point numeric rating scale; IES = impact of event scale; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.
  2. * P values are based the difference in outcome proportions between the categories as calculated by the Fisher's exact test.
  3. † Highest assigned grade if different between right and left side.