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Table 1 Mean (and standard deviation) of Vastus lateralis, Lateral gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior time of peak occurrence of control group (CG) and diabetic group (DG), during the stance phase in both condition group: barefoot and shod gait.

From: A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

     ANOVA Effect size
Time of peak occurrence (%) Condition CG (n = 21) DG (n = 24) Group Condition Group × Condition DG relative to CG (95% CI) Shod relative to Barefoot (95% CI)
Vastus lateralis Shod 15.47 ± 4.27 15.35 ± 3.71 F = 5.12 F = 10.68 F = 3.74 -0.120 (- 2.809 to 2.569) 2.960 (1.305 to 4.614)
  Barefoot 10.76 ± 2.81 14.14 ± 2.35 p = 0.030 p = 0.002 p = 0.06 3.380 (1.639 to 5.121)  
Lateral gastrocnemius Shod 66.41 ± 4.31 68.23 ± 3.84 F = 1.29 F = 10.98 F = 0.20 -1.820 (-0.813 to 4.453) 2.590 (0.528 to 4.652)
  Barefoot 64.17 ± 3.92 65.29 ± 5.35 p = 0.263 p = 0.002 p = 0.654 1.120 (- 2.033 to 4.273)  
Tibialis anterior Shod 6.52 ± 3.08 6.58 ± 2.82 F = 0.20 F = 3.36 F = 0.06 0.060 (-1.925 to 2.045) 1.020 (-0.216 to 2.256)
  Barefoot 5.46 ± 2.36 5.61 ± 2.39 p = 0.655 p = 0.06 p = 0.804 0.150 (-1.447 to 1.746)  
  1. Effect size (mean difference (95% CI)) is also provided for each variable.