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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics in patients with hip fractures (n = 61) and controls (n = 61) at baseline.

From: Two-year changes in quality of life in elderly patients with low-energy hip fractures. A case-control study

  Patients with hip fractures Controls p*-value
  Mean ( SD ) n (%) Mean ( SD ) n (%)  
Demographics      
Age (years) 73.7 (9.5)   72.6 (8.2)   0.502
(range 50-90 years)      
Females   46 (75)   46 (75) 1.000
Current height (cm) 167.8 (8.7)   166.8 (7.9)   0.513
Current weight (kg) 66.4 (12.2)   74.7 (12.5)   < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 (3.7)   26.8 (3.7)   < 0.001
Education      0.525
   < 10 years   26 (46)   22 (37)  
   11-13 years   18 (32)   21 (35)  
   > 13 years   12 (21)   17 (28)  
Cohabiting   26 (44)   38 (62) 0.045
Regular exercise**   36 (59)   47 (77) 0.033
Current smoker   16 (36)   6 (10) 0.019
Clinical characteristics      
Current calcium and/or vitamin D treatment   12 (20)   18 (30) 0.207
Current ART   9 (15)   10 (16) 0.803
Current glucocorticoid treatment   9 (16)   3 (5) 0.083
Previous fractures   28 (46)   29 (48) 0.362
Mother fracture   18 (30)   18 (30) 0.930
≥ one fall in the previous year   27 (47)   19 (37) 0.289
Osteoporosis ***   35 (58)   12 (20) 0.001
Osteopenia   21 (34)   29 (48)  
Normal BMD   5 (8)   19 (32)  
Heart diseases   28 (48)   30 (49) 0.856
Pulmonary diseases   10 (16)   5 (8) 0.168
Neurological diseases   8 (13)   3 (5) 0.114
Endocrine disorders   5 (8)   4 (7) 0.729
Gastrointestinal disorders   6 (10)   11 (18) 0.191
Urogenital disorders   5 (8)   2 (3) 0.243
Inflammatory joint/connective tissue disorders   16 (26)   13 (21) 0.523
Cancer   8 (13)   6 (10) 0.570
Mental disorders   3 (5)   2 (3) 0.648
Co-morbidities
(range 0-6) ****
1.2 (1.1)   1.5 (0.9)   0.218
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean (SD) and group variables as numbers (%).
  2. * Chi-square when comparing categorical data. Independent t tests with continuous variables. Bold p-values indicate significant differences between the groups. ** Exercise more than 30 minutes three times a week.
  3. *** Osteoporosis at total hip and/or spine L2-L4.
  4. **** Mean (SD) score of diseases including: heart diseases, pulmonary diseases, neurological disorders, urogenital disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine disorders, inflammatory joint disorders and connective tissue disorders, cancer and mental disorders.
  5. BMI, body mass index; ART, antiresorptive treatment (specific osteoporosis treatment comprising biphosphonates, or selective oestrogen-receptor modulators).