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Table 4 Mean costs (in €) per treatment group and mean differences during a 26 week follow-up period

From: Manipulative therapy in addition to usual medical care accelerates recovery of shoulder complaints at higher costs: economic outcomes of a randomized trial

Costs AMT UMC AMT vs. UMC
  Mean ± SD Mean difference (95%CI)
Total costs    
   Intention-to-treat (n = 142) 1167 ± 3348 555 ± 1290 612 (-193 to 1581)
   Adjusted for outliers (n = 140) 676 ± 1445 555 ± 1290 121 (-340 to 581)
Total direct costs    
   Intention-to-treat (n = 142) 293 ± 602 192 ± 232 101 (-75 to 252)
   Adjusted for outliers (n = 140) 266 ±555 192 ± 232 74 (-72 to 221)
Direct health care costs    
   Intention-to-treat (n = 142) 174 ± 190 153 ± 185 21 (-28 to 48)
   Adjusted for outliers (n = 140) 166 ±180 153 ± 185 14 (-47 to 75)
Direct non-health care costs    
   Intention-to-treat (n = 142) 119 ± 468 39 ±119 80 (-25 to 191)
   Adjusted for outliers (n = 140) 99 ± 436 39 ± 119 60 (-49 to 170)
Indirect costs    
   Intention-to-treat (n = 142) 913 ± 3091 381 ± 1222 523 (-338 to 1329)
   Adjusted for outliers (n = 140) 446 ± 1138 381 ± 1222 66 (-329 to 460)
  1. €: Euro's (€1 = 1.20 US Dollars); AMT: Manipulative therapy as add-on to UMC. UMC: Usual Medical Care by General Practitioner.