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Table 3 Test-retest reliability of the goniometer and ETS for hip ROM measurement in patients with FAI and healthy subjects

From: Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

  ICC2,1 CV (%) SEM (°) LOA (°)
  Gonio ETS Gonio ETS Gonio ETS Gonio ETS
Flexion 0.916 0.943 3.12 2.66 3.94 2.96 0.72 ± 11.15 0.27 ± 8.42
Abduction 0.924 0.947 5.84 5.66 2.36 2.01 0.14 ± 6.67 -0.08 ± 5.72
Adduction 0.842 0.823 6.73 6.34 2.36 1.59 -0.54 ± 6.60 1.07 ± 4.01
Internal rotation 0.950 0.902 7.74 10.19 2.42 2.93 -0.24 ± 6.89 1.32 ± 7.90
External rotation 0.914 0.934 5.23 5.10 2.53 1.81 0.02 ± 7.16 0.25 ± 5.14
  1. ETS: electromagnetic tracking system, ROM: range of motion, FAI: femoroacetabular impingement, ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient, CV: coefficient of variation, SEM: standard error of measurement, LOA: limits of agreement, Gonio: goniometer. Note that bias (retest lower than test) was significant only for adduction measured with the ETS (P < 0.01).