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Table 2 Mean values and time by treatment interaction results of primary outcome measures*

From: A treatment applying a biomechanical device to the feet of patients with knee osteoarthritis results in reduced pain and improved function: a prospective controlled study

Outcome Baseline Follow-up
(4 weeks)
Final
(8 weeks)
P Value†
WOMAC - Pain
   Active 5.4 ± 2.7 3.1 ± 2.2 1.9 ± 1.6 <0.001
   Control 5.0 ± 2.7 5.1 ± 2.2 5.4 ± 2.7  
   P Value 0.50 0.002 <0.001  
WOMAC - Stiffness
   Active 5.7 ± 3.0 3.7 ± 2.5 1.9 ± 2.3 <0.001
   Control 5.4 ± 3.3 5.4 ± 3.0 5.2 ± 3.2  
   P Value 0.67 0.02 <0.001  
WOMAC - Function
   Active 5.1 ± 2.6 3.1 ± 1.9 1.9 ± 1.5 <0.001
   Control 5.2 ± 2.3 5.5 ± 2.2 5.7 ± 2.6  
   P Value 0.91 <0.001 <0.001  
WOMAC - Total Score
   Active 5.4 ± 2.6 3.3 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.7 <0.001
   Control 5.2 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 2.6  
   P value 0.71 0.001 <0.001  
ALF Score
   Active 36.9 ± 11.5 29.2 ± 8.8 25.3 ± 6.6 <0.001
   Control 39.2 ± 16.7 37.7 ± 15.5 38.5 ± 16.3  
   P value 0.56 0.01 <0.001  
  1. * Primary outcome measures: Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire (0-10 cm Scale) and Aggregated locomotor function (ALF) (sec.). Mean values are presented as mean ± SD.
  2. The vertical p-value represent the time by treatment interaction results. This represents the difference between the groups at different points in time. The horizontal p-value represents group differences in the three examination points. This represents the differences in the active group across the three follow-ups. No significant differences were found in the control group.