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Table 2 Gender-specific odds ratios of unilateral or bilateral shoulder pain by lifestyle and metabolic factors, Health 2000 Survey, 2000-2001

From: Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: A population-based study

Characteristic Men Women
  Sample Unilateral4 Bilateral5 Sample Unilateral4 Bilateral5
   % of outcome OR 95% CI % of outcome OR 95% CI   % of outcome OR 95% CI % of outcome OR 95% CI
Smoking status               
   Never smoker 526 6.6 1   6.0 1   1487 11.6 1   8.6 1  
   Former smoker 1005 10.2 1.4 0.9-2.1 7.1 0.9 0.6-1.5 612 9.5 1.0 0.7-1.3 6.6 1.1 0.7-1.6
   Occasional smoker 168 7.8 1.3 0.6-2.4 3.1 0.7 0.3-1.8 156 8.1 1.0 0.5-2.0 1.4 0.3 0.1-1.5
   Current smoker               
< 10 pack-years 255 10.3 1.5 0.9-2.4 5.3 0.9 0.4-1.7 218 9.8 1.1 0.7-1.9 3.3 0.7 0.3-1.7
10-20 pack-years 152 7.6 1.2 0.5-2.4 2.6 0.5 0.1-1.9 175 7.1 0.8 0.4-1.7 8.7 1.8 1.0-3.1
> 20 pack-years 349 13.6 1.9 1.3-2.9 4.6 0.7 0.4-1.4 162 6.3 0.6 0.3-1.2 4.0 0.6 0.3-1.4
Exercise (times/week)               
   ≥ 1 1170 8.8 1   5.4 1   1281 9.6 1   8.0 1  
   2-3 879 11.1 1.3 0.9-1.8 4.8 1.0 0.6-1.5 1050 10.6 1.1 0.8-1.5 5.9 0.8 0.5-1.1
   ≤ 4 697 7.0 0.7 0.5-1.1 6.6 1.0 0.6-1.6 893 9.5 0.9 0.6-1.2 6.2 0.7 0.4-1.0
Body mass index               
   Normal (18.5-24.9) 967 7.7 1   4.3 1   1489 8.2 1   5.1 1  
   Underweight (< 18.5) 13 0 - - 0 - - 46 3.7 0.4 0.1-2.0 2.3 0.4 0.1-3.5
   Overweight (25.0-29.9) 1231 9.6 1.3 0.9-1.7 6.2 1.4 0.9-2.1 1011 11.6 1.2 0.9-1.6 7.1 1.1 0.7-1.5
   Obese (≥ 30.0) 455 11.5 1.4 1.0-2.0 6.4 1.4 0.8-2.2 529 11.8 1.3 0.9-1.8 10.3 1.6 1.0-2.4
Waist circumference               
Men: < 94.0 cm,
Women: < 80 cm
1053 6.1 1   4.7 1   918 6.5 1   2.8 1  
Men: 94.0-101.9 cm 802 10.9 1.8 1.2-2.5 5.5 1.1 0.7-1.7 798 10.5 1.5 1.1-2.1 6.2 1.9 1.2-3.2
Women: 80.0-87.9 cm               
Men: ≥ 102.0 cm 933 11.5 1.8 1.3-2.5 6.6 1.2 0.8-1.7 1580 11.3 1.4 0.99-2.0 10.1 2.5 1.6-4.0
Women: ≥ 88.0 cm               
Waist-to-hip ratio1               
   Normal 326 4.3 1   1.8 1   606 8.7 1   4.0 1  
   Increased 1584 9.3 2.1 1.2-3.7 5.9 2.5 1.1-5.9 1858 9.0 0.9 0.6-1.2 5.8 1.0 0.6-1.6
   High 878 11.2 2.4 1.3-4.4 6.4 2.4 1.0-5.8 831 12.3 1.0 0.7-1.5 12.3 1.8 1.1-3.1
Metabolic syndrome2               
   No 1945 8.0 1   5.2 1   2273 9.4 1   5.5 1  
   Yes 842 12.5 1.5 1.2-1.9 6.2 1.0 0.7-1.5 1033 10.7 0.8 0.6-1.1 10.8 1.2 0.9-1.7
Insulin resistance3               
Mean, per each standard deviation increase 2792   1.0 0.9-1.1   1.0 0.9-1.1 3318   1.1 0.9-1.3   1.1 0.9-1.3
Diabetes               
   No 2637 9.0 1   5.1 1   3135 9.5 1   6.7 1  
   Type 1 21 0 -   10.0 2.2 0.4-11.1 13 0 -   15.4 1.5 0.3-7.4
   Type 2 144 16.1 1.7 1.0-2.9 13.3 1.9 0.98-3.6 177 16.3 1.3 0.8-1.9 13.8 1.3 0.7-2.2
C-reactive protein               
   Low ≤ 3 mg/L 2339 8.8 1   5.4 1   2697 9.7 1   6.4 1  
   High > 3 mg/L 436 11.8 1.3 0.9-1.9 6.8 1.1 0.7-1.8 582 10.9 1.0 0.7-1.4 10.6 1.4 1.0-2.1
Carotid intima-media thickness               
Mean IMT, per each standard deviation (0.23 mm) increase 599   1.2 0.9-1.6   1.3 0.9-1.7 723   0.7 0.4-1.0   0.9 0.6-1.3
  1. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, education and physical work load factors (working with hands above the shoulder level for at least one hour per day, manual handling of loads heavier than 5 kg at least two times per minute for a minimum of two hours daily and manual handling of loads heavier than 20 kg for at least 10 times per day, working with a vibrating tool for at least two hours, work demanding high handgrip forces for at least one hour, and repetitive movements of the hands or wrists for at least two hours).
  2. 1 In men: Normal < 0.9, Increased 0.9-1.0 and High > 1.0. In women: Normal < 0.8, Increased 0.8-0.9 and High > 0.9.
  3. 2 Three of the following criteria present: 1) Central obesity, defined as waist circumference > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women; 2) triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/l; 3) HDL < 1.0 mmol/l in men and < 1.3 mmol/l in women; 4) systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mm Hg; and 5) fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l.
  4. 3 HOMA-IR: Serum insulin pmol/l × glucose mmol/l/22.5
  5. 4 Pain either in right or left shoulder during the preceding 30 days.
  6. 5 Pain in both shoulders during the preceding 30 days.