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Table 2 Properties of the materials used in this study

From: Biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine on facet joint force and intradiscal pressure - a finite element study

Material Young's modulus Poisson ratio Reference
  E (MPa) ν  
Vertebra    
Cortical bone 12000 0.3 [21, 2732]
Cancellous bone 100 0.2 [2832]
Endplate 12000 0.3 [12, 27, 29]
Posterior elements 3500 0.25 [18, 21, 30, 33, 34]
Disc    
Nucleus pulposus 1 0.4999 [16, 30, 35, 36]
Annulus ground substance 4.2 0.45 [2730, 3638]
Fiber    
   (inner) 360 0.3 [29, 39] 360~550(E)
   (outer) 550 0.3 [27, 40] 450(E)