Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signals in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (A) Typical white-matter lesions in central nervous system (CNS) lupus in a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) image of a 21-year-old woman having a headache caused by benign intracranial hypertension. Many foci of small-sized abnormal signals are visible in the white-matter of the frontal and parietal lobes. This type of abnormality was also observed in some of the SLE patients who had no history of CNS syndrome. (B) FLAIR image of a 23-year-old woman with demyelinating syndrome and acute confusional state, showing multiple large hyperintensities involving both grey and white matter (Case 3 in Table 5). (C) Remarkable resolution of the clinical signs and imaging picture 3 months later, following high dose glucocorticoid with intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy.