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Table 2 Postural changes in women with CPP and in healthy women.

From: Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

Postural changes Control (n = 48) CPP (n = 108) kappa OR 95%CI p
Head % (n) 72.9 (35) 84.3 (91) 0.53 1.2 0.5–2.9 NS
   Tilt 72.9 (35) 83.3 (90)     
   Rotation --- 46.3 (50)     
   Protraction 6.2 (3) 27.8 (30)     
Cervical spine % (n) 12.5 (6) 36.1 (39) 0.85 3.9 1.5–10 <0.01
   Rectification 6.2 (3) 6.5 (7)     
   Hyperlordosis 6.2 (3) 29.6 (32)     
Shoulders % (n) 50 (24) 59.3 (64) 0.27 1.4 0.8–6.1 NS
   Protraction 43.7 (21) 48.1 (52)     
   Medial rotation 12.5 (6) 19.4 (21)     
Scapulae % (n) 12.5 (6) 27.8 (30) 1.00 2.8 1–7.5 <0.01
   Winged 12.5 (6) 11.1 (12)     
   Plane --- 4.6 (5)     
   Discrepancy --- 13 (14)     
Thoracic spine % (n) 18.8 (9) 14.8 (16) 0.39 0.8 0.1–4.8 NS
   Hyperkyphosis 12.5 (6) 1.8 (2)     
   Rectification 6.2 (3) 13 (14)     
Lumbar spine % (n) 50 (24) 62 (67) 1.00 0.8 0.7–6 NS
   Hyperlordosis 43.8 (21) 44.4 (48)     
   Rectification 6.2 (3) 16.7 (18)     
   Scoliosis --- 4.6 (5)     
Pelvis % (n) 62.5 (30) 76.8 (83) 0.54 2 0.3–3.2 NS
   Antepulsion 25 (12) 32.4 (35)     
   Asymmetry of the iliac spines 35.4 (17) 60.2 (65)     
   Retroversion 2.1 (1) 1.8 (2)     
Knee % (n) 20.8 (10) 29.6 (32) 0.51 1.6 0.2–2.8 NS
   Hyperextension 12.5 (6) 13 (14)     
   Valgum 6.2 (3) 14.8 (16)     
   Varum 2.1 (1) 3.7 (4)     
Feet % (n) 37.5 (18) 38 (41) 0.97 1 0.4–3.9 NS
   Cavus 18.8 (9) 29.6 (32)     
   Flat 8.3 (4) 6.5 (7)     
   Asymmetry of the malleoli 10.4 (5) 2.8 (3)     
LDR (mean ± SD) 81.0 ± 10.2 83.4 ± 7.1     
LDA (mean ± SD) 88.8 ± 10.2 91.1 ± 7.3     
FFD (mean ± SD) 11.9 ± 9.7 13.9 ± 13.4     
  1. Notes- LDR: Leg-length discrepancy real; LDA: Leg-length discrepancy apparent;
  2. FFD: Fingertip to floor distance. Kappa: inter-rater reliability; SD: standard deviation; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; Ns: non-significant; CPP: chronic pelvic pain.