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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants and mean NPAD-d values by baseline characteristics (N = 448)

From: Depression and anxiety as major determinants of neck pain: a cross-sectional study in general practice

Baseline characteristics N (%) NPAD-da
mean (SD)
Total sample 448 (100) 48.6 (18.6)
Socio-demographic variables   
   Age 50 years or older 199 (44.4) 50.7 (19.5)
   Female 350 (78.1) 49.2 (17.9)
   Unemployed or retired 165 (36.7) 50.5 (19.0)
   Basic education (< 10 years at school) 152 (34.6) 52.4 (19.7)
   Living without partner 107 (22.5) 44.2 (16.8)
   Living with ≤ 2 persons in the same household 250 (59.0) 48.0 (17.9)
Frequency of neck pain   
   On the day of questionnaire completion 246 (55.5) 53.4 (17.0)
   On > 100 days in last year 158 (40.3) 56.7 (16.2)
   Constantly in last year 115 (26.2) 58.5 (16.3)
Psychosocial characteristics   
   Depressive mood b 86 (19.3) 60.6 (17.2)
   Anxiety b 123 (27.6) 57.3 (18.8)
   Deficits in social support c 67 (14.9) 56.5 (19.0)
Medical history   
   Had injury of the cervical spine 81 (19.3) 49.2 (16.2)
Health-promoting lifestyle   
   Exercises once or less per week 235 (53.0) 51.5 (18.4)
  1. a NPAD-d: Neck Pain and Disability Scale German version
  2. b based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
  3. c based on "Fragebogen zur Sozialen Unterstützung" (FSozU) (Social Support Questionnaire)