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  1. Content type: Research article

    Avascular necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis) can cause structural failure and subsequent deformation, leading to joint dysfunction and pain. Structural failure is the result of resorption of necrotic bone during...

    Authors: Jörgen Åstrand and Per Aspenberg

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:19

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  2. Content type: Research article

    To analyse the relationship between subjective pain score and other measures of clinical, radiographic and functional status; in particular Larsen radiographic scores and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ);...

    Authors: Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Tania Fiorini, Benedetta Panni, Maurizio Turiel, Marco Cazzola and Fabiola Atzeni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:18

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effec...

    Authors: JH Raphael, JL Southall, TV Gnanadurai, GJ Treharne and GD Kitas

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:17

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Although much is known about the regulation of osteoclast (OC) formation and activity, little is known about OC senescence. In particular, the fate of of OC seen after 1,25-(OH)2D3 administration in vivo is uncle...

    Authors: Dengshun Miao and Andrew Scutt

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:16

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the bo...

    Authors: Antonio Rivera, Antonio Yáñez, Gloria León-Tello, Constantino Gil, Silvia Giono, Eduardo Barba and Lilia Cedillo

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:15

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Carpal malalignment following the malunited distal radial fracture is described to develop as an adaptation to realign the hand to the malunion. It worsens gradually after healing of the fracture due to contin...

    Authors: Ajay Gupta, Sumit Batra, Pankaj Jain and Satish Kumar Sharma

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:14

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The objective of the study is to examine the reliability of erosion and joint space narrowing scores derived from hand x-rays posted on the Internet compared to scores derived from original plain x-rays.

    Authors: Hector O Arbillaga, Gregory P Montgomery, Luis P Cabarrus, Margaret M Watson, Liam Martin and Steven M Edworthy

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:13

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  8. Content type: Research article

    We hypothesized that a substantial proportion of the subjectively experienced variance in pain in fibromyalgia patients would be explained by psychological factors alone, but that a combined model, including n...

    Authors: Eva Albertsen Malt, Snorri Olafsson, Anders Lund and Holger Ursin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:12

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Little empirical research has examined the multiple consequences of osteoporosis on quality of life.

    Authors: Jonathan D Adachi, George Ioannidis, Wojciech P Olszynski, Jacques P Brown, David A Hanley, Rolf J Sebaldt, Annie Petrie, Alan Tenenhouse, Gregory F Stephenson, Alexandra Papaioannou, Gordon H Guyatt and Charlie H Goldsmith

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:11

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Backpack loads produce changes in standing posture when compared with unloaded posture. Although 'poor' unloaded standing posture has been related to spinal pain, there is little evidence of whether, and how m...

    Authors: Karen Grimmer, Brenton Dansie, Steve Milanese, Ubon Pirunsan and Patricia Trott

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:10

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  11. Content type: Research article

    In the annulus, collagen fibers that make up the lamellae have a wavy, planar crimped pattern. This crimping plays a role in disc biomechanical function by allowing collagen fibers to stretch during compressio...

    Authors: Helen E Gruber and Edward N Hanley Jr

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:9

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Morphological and electrophysiological studies of ischemic muscles in peripheral arterial disease disclosed evidence of denervation and fibre atrophy. The purpose of the present study is to describe morphologi...

    Authors: Maria Albani, Angelos Megalopoulos, Dimitris Kiskinis, Sotirios A Parashos, Nikolaos Grigoriadis and Olympia Guiba-Tziampiri

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:8

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors increase new bone formation in vitro and in rodents. Results of epidemiologic analyses evaluating the association between use of these cholesterol-lowering dr...

    Authors: Judith Hsia, Megan Morse and Virginia Levin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:7

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Bisphosphonates are indicated in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, bone mineral density (BMD) continues to decline in up to 15% of bisphosphonate users. While randomized trials have evalua...

    Authors: George A Heckman, Alexandra Papaioannou, Rolf J Sebaldt, George Ioannidis, Annie Petrie, Charlie Goldsmith and Jonathan D Adachi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:6

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Dislocated fracture of the proximal physeal plate of the tibia with or without metaphyseal fragment is rare in children. This unusual fracture classically excludes rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament due...

    Authors: Stefan Scholz, Julian Köpke and Lucas M Wessel

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:5

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence suggests that estrogens exert effects in different tissues throughout the body, and that the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) may be important for the action of estrogen (17-β-estradiol) on the skelet...

    Authors: Helen E Gruber, Dean Yamaguchi, Jane Ingram, Kelly Leslie, Weibiao Huang, Timothy A Miller and Edward N Hanley Jr

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:4

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Fibromyalgia syndrome displays sympathetically maintained pain features such as frequent post-traumatic onset and stimuli-independent pain accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias. Heart rate variability stud...

    Authors: Manuel Martinez-Lavin, Marcela Vidal, Rosa-Elda Barbosa, Carlos Pineda, Jose-Miguel Casanova and Arnulfo Nava

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:2

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Open dislocations are infrequent, often associated with damage to the neuro vascular structures. We present an unusual case of an open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow, which was not associated with any...

    Authors: Juan A Alonso, Bibas R Roy and David L Shaw

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2002 3:1

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Bone remodelling is dependent on the balance between bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts. We have shown previously that osteoclasts contain gap-junctional protein connexin-43 and that a com...

    Authors: Joanna Ilvesaro, Pasi Tavi and Juha Tuukkanen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:10

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Articular cartilage has limited capacity to repair. Defects greater than 3 mm heal with formation of inferior fibrous cartilage. Therefore, many attempts have been made to find the ideal graft for larger carti...

    Authors: Margarete K Akens, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Pedro Bittmann, Daniel Nadler, Kati Zlinszky and Jörg A Auer

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:9

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Acquired toxoplasmosis more frequently goes unrecognized. Immunocompetent adults and adolescents with primary infection are generally asymptomatic, but symptoms may include malaise, fever, and lymphadenopathy....

    Authors: Penelope K Paspalaki, Eleni P Mihailidou, Maria Bitsori, Daria Tsagkaraki and Eva Mantzouranis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:8

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often seen as the treatment of choice for preventing fractures in women. We undertook a recent meta-analysis of randomised trials which suggested that HRT reduced non-verte...

    Authors: David J Torgerson and Sally EM Bell-Syer

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:7

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Interlocking nailing, which has become the method of choice for treating fractures of the femoral and tibial shafts, still lacks ability to provide the important contact-compression at the fracture. An intrame...

    Authors: Ajay Gupta

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:6

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Needle EMG may be negative in mild or predominantly sensory lumbosacral radiculopathies. In such cases, an increase in the latency of the soleus H-reflex is a useful diagnostic criterion for establishing senso...

    Authors: Riccardo Mazzocchio, Giovanni Battista Scarfò, Aldo Mariottini, Vitaliano Francesco Muzii and Lucio Palma

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:4

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  25. Content type: Research article

    CMV infections have been linked to vasculopathies like atherosclerosis and Scleroderma. CMV infects vascular endothelium with intermittent shedding of the virus and the development of latency.

    Authors: Damir Hamamdzic, Russell A Harley, Debra Hazen-Martin and E Carwile LeRoy

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:3

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Although all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are subjected to similar risk factors that predispose to thromboembolism, only a subset of patients develop this complication. The objective of this st...

    Authors: Craig J Della Valle, Paul S Issack, Avi Baitner, David J Steiger, Carrie Fang and Paul E Di Cesare

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2001 2:1

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