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  1. The word "sex" refers to biological differences between men and women. Gender refers to roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. Traditionally,...

    Authors: Helen Razmjou, Aileen M Davis, Susan B Jaglal, Richard Holtby and Robin R Richards
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:26
  2. Determining bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established and widely used method that is also applied prior to biomechanical testing. However, DXA is affected by a nu...

    Authors: Dirk Wähnert, Konrad L Hoffmeier, Gabriele Lehmann, Rosemarie Fröber, Gunther O Hofmann and Thomas Mückley
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:25
  3. Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is recognised as a substantial source of disability, with pain and loss of function as principal symptoms. An aging society and a growing number of overweight people, which is considere...

    Authors: Nienke Paans, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Klaas van der Meer, Sjoerd K Bulstra and Martin Stevens
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:24
  4. Knock-in mice (gp130F759) with a Y759F point mutation in gp130, a signal transducing receptor subunit shared by members of the IL-6 cytokine family, show sustained activation of STAT3, enhanced acute-phase or ...

    Authors: Fumio Tsuji, Miwa Yoshimi, Osamu Katsuta, Miwa Takai, Katsuhiko Ishihara and Hiroyuki Aono
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:23
  5. Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs) for chroni...

    Authors: Ajay D Wasan, Robert N Jamison, Loc Pham, Naveen Tipirneni, Srdjan S Nedeljkovic and Jeffrey N Katz
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:22
  6. Patients with Chronic Tension Type Headache (CTTH) report functional and emotional impairments (loss of workdays, sleep disturbances, emotional well-being) and are at risk for overuse of medication. Manual the...

    Authors: René F Castien, Daniëlle AWM van der Windt, Joost Dekker, Bert Mutsaers and Anneke Grooten
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:21
  7. We performed a multicenter, open, randomized, clinical study of autologous cultured osteoblast injection for long-bone fracture, to evaluate the fracture healing acceleration effect and the safety of autologou...

    Authors: Seok-Jung Kim, Yong-Woon Shin, Kyu-Hyun Yang, Sang-Bum Kim, Moon-Jib Yoo, Suk-Ku Han, Soo-Ah Im, Yoo-Dong Won, Yerl-Bo Sung, Taek-Soo Jeon, Cheong-Ho Chang, Jae-Deog Jang, Sae-Bom Lee, Hyun-Cho Kim and Soo-Young Lee
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:20
  8. Total hip joint replacement (THR) is a high volume, effective intervention for hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, indications and determinants of outcome remain unclear. The 'EUROHIP consortium' has undertaken ...

    Authors: Paul Dieppe, Andrew Judge, Susan Williams, Ifeoma Ikwueke, Klaus-Peter Guenther, Markus Floeren, Joerg Huber, Thorvaldur Ingvarsson, Ian Learmonth, L Stefan Lohmander, Anna Nilsdotter, Wofhart Puhl, David Rowley, Robert Thieler and Karsten Dreinhoefer
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:19
  9. Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression ...

    Authors: Tanya Covic, Julie F Pallant, Alan Tennant, Sally Cox, Paul Emery and Philip G Conaghan
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:18
  10. Compared to standing posture, sitting decreases lumbar lordosis, increases low back muscle activity, disc pressure, and pressure on the ischium, which are associated with occupational LBP. A sitting device tha...

    Authors: Mohsen Makhsous, Fang Lin, James Bankard, Ronald W Hendrix, Matthew Hepler and Joel Press
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:17
  11. Patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) are often confronted with ulceration of foot soles. Increased plantar pressure under the forefoot has been identified as a major risk factor for ulceration. This stu...

    Authors: Hans HCM Savelberg, Nicolaas C Schaper, Paul JB Willems, Ton LH de Lange and Kenneth Meijer
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:16
  12. Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) has become a significant problem due to high healthcare utilization, rising costs of care and perceived limitations of effectiveness of many current treatments. Syst...

    Authors: Susan C Slade and Jennifer L Keating
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:14
  13. Although psychosocial factors are known to be highly linked with neck pain, current therapies focus on somatically based interventions such as medicinal or manipulatory therapies. This study examines how socio...

    Authors: Eva Blozik, Daria Laptinskaya, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Helene Schaefer, Michael M Kochen, Wolfgang Himmel and Martin Scherer
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:13
  14. While a relation between pain and intracapsular pressure in the hip joint has previously been reported by some of the present authors, a newly published study including patients with severe osteoarthritis was ...

    Authors: Sarunas Tarasevicius, Arunas Gelmanas, Alfredas Smailys, Otto Robertsson and Hans Wingstrand
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:12
  15. Clinical tests to assess peripheral nerve disorders can be classified into two categories: tests for afferent/efferent nerve function such as nerve conduction (bedside neurological examination) and tests for i...

    Authors: Annina B Schmid, Florian Brunner, Hannu Luomajoki, Ulrike Held, Lucas M Bachmann, Sabine Künzer and Michel W Coppieters
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:11
  16. There is evidence that low back pain (LBP) during young adulthood and military service predicts LBP later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and trends of LBP hospitalisation a...

    Authors: Ville M Mattila, Petri Sillanpää, Tuomo Visuri and Harri Pihlajamäki
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:10
  17. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indica...

    Authors: Helen P French, Tara Cusack, Aisling Brennan, Breon White, Clare Gilsenan, Martina Fitzpatrick, Paul O'Connell, David Kane, Oliver FitzGerald and Geraldine M McCarthy
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:9
  18. Measuring the orientation of acetabular cup after total hip arthroplasty is important for prognosis. The verification of these measurement methods will be easier and more feasible if we can synthesize prosthes...

    Authors: Tai-Yin Wu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chiou-Shann Fuh, Sheng-Mou Hou and Chen-Kun Liaw
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:8
  19. Symptomatic Acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations have historically been surgically treated with Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction with transfer of the Coracoacromial (CA) ligament. Tensioning the CA...

    Authors: Peter J Millett, Sepp Braun, Reuben Gobezie and Iván H Pacheco
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:6
  20. Corrective bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has favourable outcomes when patients are compliant. However, bracing may be a stressful and traumatic experience and compliance with a bracing prot...

    Authors: LouAnn Rivett, Alan Rothberg, Aimee Stewart and Rowan Berkowitz
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:5
  21. X-ray images of lumbar degenerative diseases often show not only claw osteophytes, but also pairs of osteophytes that form in a direction away from the adjacent disc. We have investigated the direction of the ...

    Authors: Yuichi Kasai, Eiji Kawakita, Toshihiko Sakakibara, Koji Akeda and Atsumasa Uchida
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:4
  22. Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a c...

    Authors: Nadine E Foster, Krysia S Dziedzic, Danielle AWM van der Windt, Julie M Fritz and Elaine M Hay
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:3
  23. In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational heal...

    Authors: An Van Nieuwenhuyse, Geert Crombez, Alex Burdorf, Geert Verbeke, Raphael Masschelein, Guido Moens and Philippe Mairiaux
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:2
  24. Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reporte...

    Authors: Jenn-Huei Renn, Nan-Ping Yang, Ching-Mo Chueh, Chih-Yuan Lin, Tsuo-Hung Lan and Pesus Chou
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009 10:1
  25. In the industrial world, non-specific back and neck pain (BNP) is the largest diagnostic group underlying sick-listing. For patients with subacute and chronic (= full-time sick-listed for 43 – 84 and 85 – 730 ...

    Authors: Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson and Lars-Erik Strender
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:172
  26. Whether reducing time-to-surgery for elderly patients suffering from hip fracture results in better outcomes remains subject to controversial debates.

    Authors: Rüdiger Smektala, Heinz G Endres, Burkhard Dasch, Christoph Maier, Hans J Trampisch, Felix Bonnaire and Ludger Pientka
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:171
  27. To determine whether there is a difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in a test battery score for movement control of the lumbar spine.

    Authors: Hannu Luomajoki, Jan Kool, Eling D de Bruin and Olavi Airaksinen
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:170
  28. The objective of this epidemiological study is to map the dentofacial anomalies that can be correlated to the two most frequent spinal diseases responsible for postural abnormalities and that can be clinically...

    Authors: Emil Segatto, Carsten Lippold and András Végh
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:169
  29. The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with ...

    Authors: Maarten A Schmitt, Nico LU van Meeteren, Anton de Wijer, Paul JM Helders and Yolanda van der Graaf
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:168
  30. Low back pain (LBP) is by far the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal problem in our society today. Following the recommendations of the Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study (MMICS) State...

    Authors: Markus Melloh, Nikolaus Aebli, Achim Elfering, Christoph Röder, Thomas Zweig, Thomas Barz, Peter Herbison, Paul Hendrick, Suraj Bajracharya, Kirsten Stout and Jean-Claude Theis
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:167
  31. Recent approaches to outcome measurement involving Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) offer an approach for measuring disability in low back pain (LBP) in a way that can reduce the burden upon patient and pro...

    Authors: Atilla Halil Elhan, Derya Öztuna, Şehim Kutlay, Ayşe A Küçükdeveci and Alan Tennant
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:166
  32. Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (...

    Authors: Olivier Bruyère, Nansa Burlet, Pierre D Delmas, René Rizzoli, Cyrus Cooper and Jean-Yves Reginster
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:165
  33. Calcitonin is used as a treatment to reduce the blood calcium concentration in hypercalcemia and to improve bone mass in osteoporosis. An analgesic effect of calcitonin has been observed and reported in clinic...

    Authors: Bunji Takayama, Shin-ichi Kikuchi, Shin-ichi Konno and Miho Sekiguchi
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:164
  34. Many people with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) do not present with pain. It is suspected that such persons tend toward lower body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the study was to explore the relatio...

    Authors: Matthew W Rogers and Frances V Wilder
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:163
  35. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a forceplate postural balance protocol in a group of elderly fallers and non-fallers. The measurements were tested in single and dual-task conditio...

    Authors: Jaap Swanenburg, Eling D de Bruin, Kathrin Favero, Daniel Uebelhart and Theo Mulder
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:162
  36. Instruments designed to measure the subjective impact of painful shoulder conditions have become essential in shoulder research. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is one of the most extensively us...

    Authors: Einar Kristian Tveitå, Ole Marius Ekeberg, Niels Gunnar Juel and Erik Bautz-Holter
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:161
  37. The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MS...

    Authors: Ole M Hoff, Kristian Midthjell, John-Anker Zwart and Knut Hagen
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:160
  38. Physical inactivity is associated with several diseases, but studies evaluating the association between chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) and physical exercise have shown conflicting results. The aim o...

    Authors: Helene Sulutvedt Holth, Hanne Kine Buchardt Werpen, John-Anker Zwart and Knut Hagen
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:159
  39. Congenital muscular torticollis is the third most common congenital musculoskeletal anomaly after dislocation of the hip and clubfoot. When diagnosed early, it is obvious that it can be managed with good or ex...

    Authors: Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ebrahim G Hasankhani, Reza Sharifi and Mahdi Mazlumi
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:158
  40. Vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Although often asymptomatic, each vertebral fracture increases the risk of additional fractures. Development of a safe and simple screenin...

    Authors: Kiyoko Abe, Junko Tamaki, Eiko Kadowaki, Yuho Sato, Akemi Morita, Misa Komatsu, Sayaka Takeuchi, Etsuko Kajita and Masayuki Iki
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:157
  41. Vertebroplasty is a promising but as yet unproven treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. It involves radiographic-guided injection of various types of bone cement directly into the vertebral f...

    Authors: Rachelle Buchbinder, Richard H Osborne, Peter R Ebeling, John D Wark, Peter Mitchell, Chris J Wriedt, Lainie Wengier, David Connell, Stephen E Graves, Margaret P Staples and Bridie Murphy
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:156
  42. To describe a semi-quantitative score for multi-feature, whole-organ evaluation of the knee in osteoarthritis based on the results of arthroscopic evaluation.

    Authors: Gunter Spahn, Thomas Mückley, Hans M Klinger and Gunther O Hofmann
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:155
  43. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The p...

    Authors: Jon R Cook, Meghan Warren, Kathleen J Ganley, Paul Prefontaine and Jack W Wylie
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:154
  44. Osteoarthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and increased cartilage degradation in the subchondral bone and joint. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Tibolone, a synthe...

    Authors: MA Karsdal, I Byrjalsen, DJ Leeming and C Christiansen
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:153
  45. Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests ...

    Authors: Tim Mitchell, Peter B O'Sullivan, Angus F Burnett, Leon Straker and Anne Smith
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:152
  46. Individuals with osteoporosis and recent vertebral fractures suffer from pain and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). To determine whether patients with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide exper...

    Authors: Arthur N Lau, Sammy H Ali, Anna M Sawka, Lehana Thabane, Alexandra Papaioannou, Amiram Gafni and Jonathan D Adachi
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:151
  47. Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the...

    Authors: Michael J Mienaltowski, Liping Huang, Arnold J Stromberg and James N MacLeod
    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:149

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