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  1. The optimal management for severe sprains (Grades II and III) of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle is unclear. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to estimate (1) the clinical effectivenes...

    Authors: SE Lamb, RA Nakash, EJ Withers, M Clark, JL Marsh, S Wilson, JL Hutton, A Szczepura, JR Dale and MW Cooke

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2005 6:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Self-administrated patient outcome scores are increasingly recommended for evaluation of primary outcome in clinical studies. The VISA-P score, developed at the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment in Melbo...

    Authors: Anna Frohm, Tönu Saartok, Gunnar Edman and Per Renström

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:49

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aim...

    Authors: Remzi Cevik, Ali Gur, Suat Acar, Kemal Nas and Ayşegül Jale Sarac

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Neurogenic Para-Osteo-Arthropathy (NPOA) occurs as a consequence of central nervous system injuries or some systemic conditions. They are characterized by bone formation around the main joints.

    Authors: T Youssefian, R Sapena, R Carlier, C Bos, A Denormandie, P Denys, A Cormier and M Bandelier

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Low back pain is a common disorder in western industrialised countries and the type of treatments for low back pain vary considerably.

    Authors: Nicole van der Roer, Maurits W van Tulder, Johanna M Barendse, Willem van Mechelen, Willemien K Franken, Arjan C Ooms and Henrica CW de Vet

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:45

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. It has previously been shown that an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may lead to impaired postural control, and that the ability to maintain postural control is decreased by fatigue in healthy subjects...

    Authors: Eva Ageberg, David Roberts, Eva Holmström and Thomas Fridén

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:44

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Only controlled blocks are capable of confirming the zygapophysial joints (ZJ) as the pain generator in LBP patients. However, previous workers have found that a cluster of clinical signs ("Revel's criteria"),...

    Authors: Mark Laslett, Birgitta Öberg, Charles N Aprill and Barry McDonald

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The myasthenia gravis is twice as common in women as in men and frequently affects young women in the second and third decades of life, overlapping with the childbearing years. Generally, during pregnancy in o...

    Authors: José F Téllez-Zenteno, Lizbeth Hernández-Ronquillo, Vicente Salinas, Bruno Estanol and Orlando da Silva

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a debilitating fibro-proliferative disorder of the hand characterized by the appearance of fibrotic lesions (nodules and cords) leading to flexion contractures of the fingers and lo...

    Authors: Raymond Tse, Jeffrey Howard, Yan Wu and Bing Siang Gan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:41

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Researchers from the Royal Netherlands Army are studying the potential of isolated lumbar extensor training in low back pain in their working population. Currently, a randomized controlled trial is carried out...

    Authors: Pieter H Helmhout, Chris C Harts, J Bart Staal and Rob A de Bie

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:40

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. The objective is to present the design of randomised clinical trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of physical therapy added to general practitioners management compared to general practitioners management only in...

    Authors: Pim AJ Luijsterburg, Arianne P Verhagen, Raymond WJG Ostelo, Hans JMM van den Hoogen, Wilco C Peul, Cees JJ Avezaat and Bart W Koes

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD) is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is need...

    Authors: Eva L Horneij, Irene B Jensen, Eva B Holmström and Charlotte Ekdahl

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease...

    Authors: Charles W Denko and Charles J Malemud

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Variability in dosing and costs of biologics among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of interest to healthcare descision-makers. We examined dosing and costs among RA patients newly treated with infli...

    Authors: Thomas D Gilbert Jr, Daniel Smith and Daniel A Ollendorf

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite th...

    Authors: Shahram Sadeghi, Behrooz Kazemi, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri Shooshtari, Ali Bidari and Peyman Jafari

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Chronic neck pain is a common complaint in the Netherlands with a point prevalence of 14.3%. Patients with chronic neck pain are often referred to a physiotherapist and, although many treatments are available,...

    Authors: Frieke Vonk, Arianne P Verhagen, Mario Geilen, Cees J Vos and Bart W Koes

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:34

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. The combination of spinal manipulation and various physiotherapeutic procedures used to correct the curvatures associated with scoliosis have been largely unsuccessful. Typically, the goals of these procedures...

    Authors: Mark W Morningstar, Dennis Woggon and Gary Lawrence

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:32

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Acupuncture is a popular non-pharmacological modality for treating musculoskeletal pain. Physiotherapists are one of the largest groups of acupuncture providers within the NHS, and they commonly use it alongsi...

    Authors: Elaine Hay, Panos Barlas, Nadine Foster, Jonathan Hill, Elaine Thomas and Julie Young

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:31

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. High prevalence rates for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus have been described in American Indian and Alaskan Native adults. The impact of these diseases on American...

    Authors: Joyce Mauldin, H Dan Cameron, Diane Jeanotte, Glenn Solomon and James N Jarvis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women...

    Authors: Roberto Hernandez-Rauda and Sandra Martinez-Garcia

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:29

    Content type: Research article

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  21. A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in chronic conditions like osteoarthritis and tendinitis. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bia...

    Authors: Lorna Mason, R Andrew Moore, Jayne E Edwards, Sheena Derry and Henry J McQuay

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb fun...

    Authors: Atakan Aydin, Turker Ozkan and Defne Onel

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The time required for radiographic union following femoral fracture increases with age in both humans and rats for unknown reasons. Since abnormalities in fracture innervation will slow skeletal healing, we ex...

    Authors: Martha H Meyer, Wiguins Etienne and Ralph A Meyer Jr

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:24

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Patients with upper limb pain often have a slumped sitting position and poor shoulder posture. Pain could be due to poor posture causing mechanical changes (stretch; local pressure) that in turn affect the fun...

    Authors: Andrea Julius, Rebecca Lees, Andrew Dilley and Bruce Lynn

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a useful diagnostic tool for the assessment of knee joint injury. Anterior cruciate ligament repair is a commonly performed orthopaedic procedure. This paper examines the con...

    Authors: Kai-Jow Tsai, Hongsen Chiang and Ching-Chuan Jiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Intramuscular lipoma is a relatively common benign neoplasm that is occasionally described as an infiltrating lipoma. Typical benign tumors show a clear margin, however, the infiltrative growth pattern of this...

    Authors: Kanji Mori, Tokuhiro Chano, Keiji Matsumoto, Michihito Ishizawa, Yoshitaka Matsusue and Hidetoshi Okabe

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practit...

    Authors: Barry K Humphreys, Marianne Delahaye and Cynthia K Peterson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Reproducible measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The digital inclinometer is considered to be a useful instrument because it is inexpensiv...

    Authors: Andrea F de Winter, Monique AMB Heemskerk, Caroline B Terwee, Marielle P Jans, Walter Devillé, Dirk-Jan van Schaardenburg, Rob JPM Scholten and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Although the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) is considered the leading outcome measure for patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremity, recent work has challenged i...

    Authors: Paul W Stratford and Deborah M Kennedy

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in dentists is high although relatively few studies had focus in this profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between physical, psychosoc...

    Authors: Evangelos C Alexopoulos, Ioanna-Christina Stathi and Fotini Charizani

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region...

    Authors: Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Mark V Boswell, Vijay Singh, Vidyasagar Pampati, Kim S Damron and Carla D Beyer

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Disability associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders is an increasingly serious societal problem. Although most injured workers return quickly to work, a substantial number do not. The costs of ch...

    Authors: Judith A Turner, Gary Franklin, Deborah Fulton-Kehoe, Kathleen Egan, Thomas M Wickizer, James F Lymp, Lianne Sheppard and Joel D Kaufman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:14

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of temporal and spatial gait measurements over a one-week period as measured using an instrumented walkway system (GAITRite®).

    Authors: Cornelis JT van Uden and Marcus P Besser

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Hyaluronan, an unsulfated glycosaminoglycan, while being closely linked to osteoclast function several years ago, has received little attention lately. Given recent new knowledge of hyaluronan's possible cell ...

    Authors: Charles W Prince

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:12

    Content type: Debate

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  35. The presence of a fragility fracture is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, and should be an indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and therapy. However, the extent to which patients who fracture are assessed ...

    Authors: A Papaioannou, L Giangregorio, B Kvern, P Boulos, G Ioannidis and JD Adachi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of ...

    Authors: Alexander O El-Warrak, Marvin Olmstead, Rebecca Schneider, Lorenz Meinel, Regula Bettschart-Wolfisberger, Margarete K Akens, Joerg Auer and Brigitte von Rechenberg

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  37. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a dietary supplement used in the management of osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms. Studies evaluating SAMe in the management of OA have been limited to Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Wadie I Najm, Sibylle Reinsch, Fred Hoehler, Jerome S Tobis and Phillip W Harvey

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Knee pain affects an estimated 25% of the adult population aged 50 years and over. Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis made in older adults consulting with knee pain in primary care. However, the relat...

    Authors: George Peat, Elaine Thomas, June Handy, Laurence Wood, Krysia Dziedzic, Helen Myers, Ross Wilkie, Rachel Duncan, Elaine Hay, Jonathan Hill and Peter Croft

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:4

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. The prone leg extension (PLE) is a clinical test used to evaluate the function of the lumbopelvis. It has been theorized that a normal and consistent pattern of muscle activation exists. Previous research has ...

    Authors: Gregory J Lehman, Duane Lennon, Brian Tresidder, Ben Rayfield and Michael Poschar

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:3

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The clinical syndrome of joint pain and stiffness in older people is the commonest cause of disability and health care consultation in this age group. Yet there have been few prospective studies of its course ...

    Authors: Elaine Thomas, Ross Wilkie, George Peat, Susan Hill, Krysia Dziedzic and Peter Croft

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:2

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether professional drivers of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) with neck pain have a different array of neuromusculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremitie...

    Authors: Börje Rehn, Tohr Nilsson and Bengt Järvholm

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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